Blog Archives

Hearth Healthy Breakfast for Keep Fit Your Body

Heart disease is the # 1 leading cause of death in the Unites States. Coronary cardiovascular disease is the most usual sort of heart problem, eliminating practically 380,000 individuals every year.

In the USA, a cardiovascular disease happens every 34 secs. Every 60 seconds, a person passes away from a heart disease-related occasion. Cardiovascular disease kills 1 in 3 females, more than breast cancer as well as all forms of cancer incorporated.

71 million American adults, 33.5% of the populace have high cholesterol; a significant contributing risk variable for heart disease as well as only 1 from every 3 adults have the problem under control.

The Role Of Diet Plan In Heart Problem

Diet as well as workout are the primary methods to avoid cardiovascular disease, make sure lasting wellness, and also protect against persistent disease. Heart healthy foods deliver power-packed phytonutrients that assist to prevent and repair mobile damages and valuable macro as well as micronutrients to make sure optimum heart health.

Lots of foods additionally help in avoiding high cholesterol as well as blocking of heart arteries that can lead to the need for coronary bypass or sudden death from cardiovascular disease.

Olive oil has actually been revealed to reduce cardiovascular disease and is among the main staples of the Mediterranean diet regimen that a current research study revealed to minimize heart disease by 30% in risky patients as well as by 9% in healthy people.

On top of that, here are 25 even more foods that are chock packed with heart-healthy nutrients, which can help in the defense of your cardio system.

1. Salmon

According to the American Heart Organization, omega-3 fatty acids are heart healthy fats that fall under the group of polyunsaturated fats. Regular intake of these healthy fats aids to decrease the danger of heart arrhythmias that often lead to untimely end, slow plaque build-up in the heart and also lower triglyceride degrees.

2. Flaxseed

Flaxseed supplies omega-3 fats, together with fiber as well as phytoestrogens that help to reduce poor LDL cholesterol while raising excellent HDL cholesterol.

Ground flaxseed could be added to cereals, yogurt, homemade muffins, as well as to fit to be tied vegetables for a nutty taste.

3. Oat meal

Numerous research studies have validated that soluble nutritional fiber intake substantially minimizes the risk for developing heart disease. A 1/4- mug serving of steel cut oats gives 15% of the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s suggested daily allowance of fiber. Hot oat meal and also fresh berries is a treat for you and your heart.

4. Beans

Beans are extremely high in both soluble as well as insoluble fiber that aids control cholesterol, and also they are a terrific resource of lean healthy protein rather than pet healthy protein that is much higher in saturated fat that could clog heart arteries.

Beans likewise give:

  1. Magnesium
  2. B-complex vitamins
  3. Niacin
  4. Folate
  5. Omega-3 fats
  6. Calcium

5. Blueberries

Blueberries are high in fiber and low in sugar and also deal necessary carotenoids, the flavonoid, anthocyanin, Ellagic acid, vitamin C, calcium, as well as potassium.

6. Tofu

Tofu is a fantastic option to pet healthy protein that is high in saturated fat as well as supplies, Niacin, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

7. Red Wine as well as Grapes

The catechin and also resveratrol flavonoids in red wine are thought to reduce danger for heart problem. Red grapes are abundant in flavonoids so there is no have to begin consuming alcohol just for heart health. Raw fresh garlic as well as garlic supplements are also terrific resources of catechin.

8. Tuna

Tuna is a fatty fish that is rich in heart healthy omega-3 fatty acids. It additionally provides folate as well as niacin.

9. Walnuts

Like almonds, walnuts use important nutrients for heart wellness, consisting of heart-favorable mono as well as polyunsaturated fats, magnesium, folate, fiber and vitamin E.

10. Wild rice

Wild rice is a healthy whole grain that is much better for heart wellness than white processed rice. It provides you, B-complex vitamins, niacin, magnesium, and also fiber.

11. Soy Milk

Soymilk is strengthened with heart healthy nutrients, consisting of: isoflavones, niacin, folate, calcium, magnesium and phytoestrogen, potassium as well as B-complex vitamins

12. Almonds

Almonds are nutrition powerhouses that supply heart pleasant mono and also polyunsaturated fats, as well as:

  1. Magnesium
  2. Vitamin E.
  3. Phytosterols.

Select raw nuts without included salty or sweet garnishes. Cacao cleaned almonds are a fantastic choice to obtain an added increase of anti-oxidants from the delicious chocolate. Pure almond butter is an incredibly food that provides healthy fats as well as makes a terrific treat as a dip for fruit to satisfy the craving for sweets or on whole grain salute for breakfast.

13. Carrots

Carrots offer beta-carotene and also fiber. They are additionally valuable for vision health and wellness. They make a great wonderful treat.

14. Spinach, Kale, And All Leafy Greens

Leafed environment-friendlies are nature’s super foods as well as offer the best of exactly what plant foods have to offer, including, lutein, B-complex vitamins, magnesium, potassium calcium, and fiber.

Select spinach instead of lettuce for nutrient-packed salads as well as sandwiches.

15. Tomatoes

Tomatoes are tasty and also pleasant, and while we commonly refer to them as veggies, they are really fruits.

For heart wellness, tomatoes supply lycopene, beta and also alpha-carotene, lutein, vitamin C, folate, fiber and potassium.

Eat them in salads, as snacks, in smoothies, baked with a sprinkle of parmesan cheese and also in healthy sauces over entire grain pasta.

16. Wonderful Potatoes

Sweet potatoes are a better selection than spuds because they offer more nutrients, are lower on the Glycemic index, that makes them extra effective for blood glucose control as well as provide these nutrients for heart wellness:.

  1. Beta-carotene
  2. Vitamins A, C, and E
  3. Fiber

17. Whole Grain Grains

Entire grain cereals, like whole wheat and also oat bran aid to reduced cholesterol.

18. Broccoli

Broccoli, like all eco-friendly veggies is reduced in calories, nutrient abundant and also can be consumed in abundance. Broccoli offers you lots of nutrients for heart wellness, consisting of beta-carotene, vitamins C, E, A, B-6 as well as fiber.

Consume it steamed as a side dish, or cut fresh broccoli right into soup. It additionally makes a fantastic treat when dipped into nutrient abundant hummus.

19. Oranges

Oranges are high in fiber as well as supply essential antioxidants to secure from free radicals. They also provide beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, flavonoids, as well as great deals of vitamin C, folate, fiber, and potassium. Consume the entire fruit as juicing eliminates the pulp as well as removes the fiber.

20. Asparagus

Another amazing green vegetable that is low in calories and heart healthy offering important nutrients, such as beta-carotene as well as lutein, B-complex vitamins, fiber and also folate.

21. Acorn Squash

Acorn Squash is a vegetable abundant in anti-oxidants, including, beta-carotene, lutein, B-complex and vitamin C. This delicious vegetable also offers folate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and also fiber.

22. Melon

This juicy pleasant fruit benefits heart health due it’s rich web content of anti-oxidants, consisting of, alpha as well as beta-carotene, lutein, B-complex vitamins as well as vitamin C. It is additionally a high fiber fruit that can help avoid high cholesterol.

23. Papaya

Papaya is another pleasant and also tasty fruit that could help reduced threats of heart disease by offering you with beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamins E and also C, lutein calcium, magnesium and also potassium.

24. Dark delicious chocolate

Dark delicious chocolate that goes to least 60% cacao includes resveratrol and cacao phenol flavonoids that are effective antioxidants in stopping heart disease.

25. Green Tea

Green tea has numerous health and wellness benefits, several of which are rooted in its material of catechin and flavanols that assist to minimize heart disease threats. It additionally helps with weight loss, which normally boosts health and wellness as well as dramatically lowers the dangers for cardiovascular disease.

Profits

Integrating these 25 heart-healthy foods into your everyday diet regimen can help to lower your danger of creating heart disease such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, and also strokes.

Animals and Mental Illness

Individuals enjoy to see animals do points that resemble human actions. This charming nod towards higher-thinking is just sufficient to earn us laugh, yet inadequate to obtain us as well concerned. Regretfully, sometimes animal comparisons to humans aren’t YouTube-video-worthy. As scientific research advances, research study continues to verify that animals could struggle with psychological conditions, many of them similar to those individuals struggle with too. Continue reading to learn which psychological concerns could be discovered in human beings and our four-legged compatriots.

Mental Disorders in Animals

Below the cut I’ll be talking about numerous things that individuals could locate distressing/triggering:

animal suffering mental illness (including recommendations or summaries of one of the most generally diagnosed human mental illness), and pet study. It’s an upsetting topic, which is why I’m discussing it much more formally compared to I generally do, but I think it’s both interesting as well as crucial.

Exactly how do we define a mental illness?

While the factor of this article isn’t truly to show somehow that pets could get mental disorders like humans do, it’s important that we specify just what a mental disorder is prior to we review them.
That, obviously, is a little easier said compared to done. Much less specify ‘mental illness’ for animals, we’re hardly able to choose an interpretation for humans.

Mental Conditions in Pets

animal mental disorders
Almost four years earlier, I created an essay called “Do Wild Animals Suffer From PTSD and also Other Psychological Disorders?” in which I summed up much of exactly what we understood after that concerning PTSD and also other mental disorders in nonhuman animals (animals).

I ended, “Because wild pets don’t get the medical care to which our buddy pets are privy, those that experience extreme and incapacitating emotional disorders just pass away, as do those who endure significant physical injuries as well as disease. So, my assumption is indeed, wild animals do indeed struggle with PTSD as well as other mental conditions under all-natural problems and that as time goes on we will find out more regarding the extent of these conditions.

I urge field employees to search for this and also to report circumstances of emotional injury. Even in the lack of an adequate data source, I can’t imagine that the extent of psychopathologies among wild animals resembles just how rampant PTSD and other conditions are among restricted animals whose lives have been extremely endangered by people by being compelled to stay in extremely unnatural conditions in unnatural social groups.” (For additional essays please see “PTSD in War Dogs Finally Getting the Focus It Is entitled to,” “Captivity Drives Killer Whales Crazy: SeaWorld Fights Penalties For Putting Profit Over Security,” and “Do Pets Worry and also Lose Sleep When They’re Bothered?”).

I likewise blogged about the incident of emotional conditions in pets in Why Canines Bulge as well as Bees Obtain Clinically Depressed: The Fascinating Scientific Research of Animal Intelligence, Feelings, Friendship, and Preservation, as well as it seems since even more researchers are interested in mental illness in captive and wild pets and this week an essay by Shreya Dasgupta labelled “Several animals could end up being mentally ill” was published in BBC Planet. Ms. Dasgupta summed up a lot of just what we currently know, including brand-new information from neurobiological as well as genetic studies. Since her excellent essay is available online, here I’ll supply some snippets to whet your hunger for extra.

Ms. Dasgupta begins, “We have actually had the tendency to think of psychological diseases as a distinctively human characteristic. However that could be wrong. There is growing proof that many pets could suffer from psychological health and wellness conditions much like those seen in people. These unfortunate animals might help us recognize just how and why humans come to be emotionally unwell, as well as why these devastating disorders ever progressed whatsoever.” She after that notes, “It appears that pet mental disease could be activated by much of the same factors that let loose mental disorder in humans. That includes the loss of family members or companions, loss of freedom, stress and anxiety, trauma and also abuse.”.

We also recognize, “Demanding events can also leave marks on animals’ genes. In 2014, researchers located that African grey parrots that were housed alone endured a lot more hereditary damages than parrots that were housed in pairs. The researchers checked out the parrots’ telomeres: caps on the ends of their chromosomes that gradually wear away with age or stress. 9-year-old parrots that were elevated alone had telomeres as short as pair-housed birds that were 23 years older. It appears that social deprivation is difficult for parrots, equally as it is for humans.”.

Ms. Dasgupta likewise blogs about the genetics of psychological conditions, concentrating on a household of synapse genes called Dig, studied by Dr. Jess Nithianantharajah and also her associates. It turns out that “Invertebrates – pets like flies and squid that do not have foundations – have only one Dlg gene. Yet all vertebrates – backboned pets like fish, birds as well as apes – have four” which “Mutations in these added Dlg genes can give rise to several mental problems.” Moreover, “computer mice and humans with anomalies in any one of their Dlg genetics had troubles with different cognitive tests.”.

All pets can lose their minds

More genetic research studies revealed that creatures other than people had genes associated with schizophrenia and also autism and “genetic research studies like these [please see “Evolutionary conservation in genetics underlying human psychiatric problems”] do recommend that all animals with brains have the ability to shed some elements of their minds.”.

Ms. Dasgupta wraps up, “Yet far from being something restricted to spoiled modern-day human beings, mental disorder could strike several type of animals as well as seems to have been around for numerous millions of years. Much like apparently even more physical problems like cancer cells, it could be mapped back to mechanical things such as genes and also healthy proteins within our cells. Mental disorders seem to be the price animals pay for their intelligence. The same genes that made us wise also inclined us to madness. There’s nothing disgraceful in that.”.

I’m delighted there is so much passion in all facets of the psychological lives of animals– the ups as well as the downs– as well as I highly recommend this interesting essay and also the web links therein. There is no need to think we are distinct in experiencing a wide range of mental disorders as well as I make certain that future comparative research study will reveal that we and various other pets experience deep as well as abundant emotions on both sides of the coin.

Keep in mind: It’s fascinating that this essay immediately complies with one called “Pets Do not Experience Feelings, Claims Texas Journalist” in which the writer neglects reams of tough information on the contrary and concludes, “There is no conclusive scientific proof that animals experience feelings as we do.”.

Bow-Wow Blues

Animal: Armed Force Dogs.

Diagnosis: PTSD.

Doctor’s Notes: Military veterinarians claim post-traumatic stress disorder can influence army pet dogs in a similar means to servicemen and women. Numerous formerly exuberant bomb-sniffing pooches have actually returned from their initial scenic tour in Iraq withdrawn and also fearful of social circumstances. Vets are starting to establish training for these canines in hopes of helping them conquer their freshly obtained anxieties.

Winter blues

Pet: Chimpanzee.

Diagnosis: Situational Stress and anxiety.

Physician’s Notes: Researchers were not surprised to locate that laboratory monkeys developed uncommon behaviors, but really did not anticipate the very same responses in zoo chimps. New research study shows that lots of chimps could obtain anxiousness from residing in bondage, which creates them to develop behaviors linked to mental disease. Several of the habits observed include rocking back and forth, alcohol consumption urine, pacing and hitting their own bodies.

Pig Issues

Animal: Farm Pigs.

Medical diagnosis: Thin Sow Disorder (Anorexia).

Medical professional’s Notes: While slim plant disorder can be added to pigs with a bad diet or lack of food, doctors have likewise seen the condition in pets with available nutrition. Professionals believe that pigs will in some cases starve themselves in reaction to social as well as and ecological stresses. Together with choosing not to consume, pigs with thin sow syndrome are frequently over active. (The Pig Site).

Quibbling Peckers

Pet: Parrots, Cockatoos and also Various Other Pet Dog Birds.

Medical diagnosis: Feather-Plucking (Trichotillomania).

Medical professional’s Notes: Feather-plucking, or over-preening, in birds can be credited to numerous reasons. A few of the problems that create birds to take out their plumes and self-mutilate are anxiousness, over-excitement as well as monotony. These psychological triggers could also be seen in people experiencing trichotillomania, likewise called hair-plucking.

Mine!

Pet: Hamsters.

Medical diagnosis: Hoarding.

Physician’s Notes: Thanks to their extensive cheek pouches, hamsters are born with the skills for hoarding. It is common to see a pet hamster stuff its confront with food or gather a too much amount of food in one location of its cage. Scientists believe this is a behavior remaining from the hamster’s wild relatives, who collected shops of food to consume securely in their environments during the day as well as throughout hibernation.

Cat Compulsions

Animal: Pet cats

Medical diagnosis: OCD

Medical professional’s Notes: OCD covers a range of repeated as well as seemingly pointless actions in pet cats, including too much pet grooming, meowing, pacing and also fabric sucking. Vets believe that pet cats use the habits as coping devices, with some of the attributes also releasing pain-relieving chemicals in the brain that can assist with stress and anxiety. While these OCD outbursts could cause temporary alleviation, they are unhealthy for felines, and also without treatment they could end up being irreversible, untriggered habits.

Berry Bad

Animal: Elephant

Diagnosis: Substance Abuse

Doctor’s Notes: Elephants have actually been discovered to look for a specific type of berry for its hallucinogenic top qualities. The pet will certainly head out on little quests to discover the food so as to get high. More youthful elephants occasionally accompany seniors on these trips, discovering the actions for themselves.

Too Much Nomming

Pet: Rats

Medical diagnosis: Binge Consuming

Medical professional’s Notes: In a study, researchers found that when provided regular accessibility to optional nutritional fats, rats would certainly establish binge-eating routines. This passion for consuming the extra food meant various other substance-abuse problems in later examinations. On the other hand, rats given permanent accessibility to optional dietary fat ate more general, however dispersed it evenly throughout the day.

Poor To The Unguis

Pet: Steeds Staying In Stables

Diagnosis: Steady Vice/Destructive Habits

Doctor’s Notes: Equines that live in stables could easily come under fits of boredom and stress and anxiety. If there is no other way for the pet to release these feelings constructively, they will certainly begin picking up vices. These negative routines include wood-chewing, pacing, kicking as well as more. To assist steeds remain calm and also amused, business have actually started generating secure playthings.

Ultimate Sacrifice

Animal: Pea Aphid

Medical diagnosis: Self-destructive Propensities

Medical professional’s Notes: Scientists are wanting to pet suicides as a version for learning about and also helping suicidal human beings. Among the animals being examined is the pea aphid. This bug voluntarily takes off when a killer appears. The blast spreads surrounding aphids, shielding them from the approaching killer.

Got A Light?

Pet: Cigarette Smoking Orangutans

Diagnosis: Dependency

Doctor’s Notes: “Ape see, monkey do” transformeded into a negative behavior for Tori the orangutan. After simulating smoking cigarettes zoo site visitors and also finding thrown out cigarette butts, Tori is now addicted to smoking cigarettes. If the orangutan does not obtain her nicotine repair, she comes to be irritated as well as throws points. Zookeepers are presently working on getting her to stop.

Seeking A Buzz

Animal:

Diagnosis: Thrill-Seeking Character

Physician’s Note: Though they could be drones, not all are made the same way. Scientists just recently found that the scout bees who seek out new food resources have a lot more activity in the “uniqueness seeking” part of the mind compared to the employee bees who remain behind as well as just check out well-known food sources.

Conclusions: Do Pets Deal With Mental Disorders?

animal mental illness
I’m not really mosting likely to attempt to answer that question; I’ll allow you men decide for yourselves. I think instead the search phrase is ‘experience’- that is, several, many pets experience discomfort that seems to come from no place else besides the mind. Veterinarians as well as pet scientists are already cognizant of this; it is the general public that appears to have a tough time catching up.

Many people are oddly immune to the suggestion that animals need to be put on things like antidepressants or anti-anxiety drug, although that they have been made use of to manage captive pet actions since a minimum of the 80s. I won’t deny that it’s more desirable to repair the concern via behavioral modification alone, as it is with human beings, but the persistent rejection that behavioral drugs ought to be made use of on animals to me nearly resembles a rejection of the suggestion that pets can experience long-lasting psychological suffering.

As well as it is an embarassment, since many pets that reveal these behavioral issues are simply put down ultimately, because individuals typically aren’t willing to place in the time and energy to try as well as locate a way to treat them.

Lots of animals in captivity suffer mentally as a result of things we have actually done, as well as I assume that it is our obligation to attempt as tough as we could in order to help them.

Bacteria vs Virus – Difference and Comparison

Bacteria and viruses are both tiny microorganisms that can cause condition in humans. While these microbes could have some characteristics in common, they are additionally really different.

Bacteria are commonly much bigger compared to viruses and can be seen under a light microscope. Viruses have to do with 1,000 times smaller compared to bacteria and show up under an electron microscope. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that reproduce asexually separately of other organisms.

Viruses call for the help of a living cell in order to reproduce.

Where Are They Locate?

Bacteria: Bacteria live practically anywhere including within other organisms, on other organisms, and on inorganic surfaces. Some bacteria are taken into consideration to be extremophiles and can make it through in exceptionally severe settings such as hydrothermal vents and in the tummies of pets and humans.

Viruses: Similar to bacteria, viruses can be found in nearly any type of environment. They can contaminate animals and plants, along with bacteria and archaeans. Viruses that infect extremophiles such as archaeans have genetic adjustments that enable them to endure harsh ecological conditions (hydrothermal vents, sulpuric waters, etc.).

Viruses could continue on surface areas and on things we use day-to-day for differing lengths of time (from secs to years) depending on the type of virus.

Bacteria and viruses are also little to be seen by the naked eye, could trigger comparable symptoms and are commonly spread out similarly, however that’s where the similarities end.

A microorganism is a single, however facility, cell. It can survive by itself, inside or outside the body.

A lot of bacteria aren’t damaging. In fact, we have many bacteria on and inside our body, particularly in the gut in order to help digest food.

Viruses are smaller sized and are not cells. Unlike bacteria, they need a host such as a human or animal to increase. Viruses create infections by going into and increasing inside the host’s healthy cells.

Bacterial and Viral Structure

Bacteria: Bacteria are prokaryotic cells that present all of the characteristics of living organisms.

Bacterial cells consist of organelles and DNA that are immersed within the cytoplasm and surrounded by a cell wall surface. These organelles execute vital functions that enable bacteria to obtain power from the environment and to replicate.

Viruses: Viruses are not considered cells but exist as bits of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) encased within a protein shell.

Additionally known as virions, virus bits exist someplace between living and non-living organisms. While they contain genetic product, they do not have a cell wall or organelles essential for power manufacturing and recreation. Viruses count solely on a host for duplication.

Shapes and size

Bacteria: Bacteria can be located in a selection of shapes and sizes. Usual bacterial cell forms include cocci (round), bacilli (rod-shaped), spiral, and vibrio. Bacteria typically range in dimension from 200-1000 nanometers (a nanomerter is 1 billionth of a meter) in diameter. The biggest bacterial cells show up with the nude eye. Thought about the world’s biggest bacteria, Thiomargarita namibiensis can rise to 750,000 nanometers (0.75 millimeters) in diameter.

Viruses: The size and shape of viruses is established by the amount of nucleic acid and healthy proteins they include. Viruses commonly have round (polyhedral), rod-shaped, or helical designed capsids. Some viruses, such as bacteriophages, have complicated forms that include the addition of a protein tail attached to the capsid with tail fibers expanding from the tail. Viruses are much smaller compared to bacteria. They normally vary in dimension from 20-400 nanometers in size.

The largest viruses understood, the pandoraviruses, are about 1000 nanometers or a complete micrometer in dimension.

How Do They Reproduce?

Bacteria: Bacteria typically replicate asexually by a process known as binary fission. In this procedure, a solitary cell duplicates and splits right into two the same daughter cells. Under correct conditions, bacteria could experience exponential growth.

Viruses: Unlike bacteria, viruses can only reproduce with the help of a host cell. Given that viruses don’t have the organelles needed for the reproduction of viral parts, they have to make use of the host cell’s organelles to duplicate. In viral duplication, the virus injects its hereditary material (DNA or RNA) into a cell. Viral genes are replicated and offer the directions for the structure of viral parts. As soon as the parts are put together and the freshly formed viruses grow, they burst the cell and move on to infect various other cells.

Conditions Brought On By Bacteria and Viruses

Bacteria: While a lot of bacteria are harmless and some are even valuable to humans, other bacteria can triggering disease. Pathogenic bacteria that create illness create toxins that ruin cells. They could cause food poisoning and various other major ailments consisting of meningitis, pneumonia, and consumption. Bacterial infections could be treated with prescription antibiotics, which are extremely effective at eliminating bacteria.

Because of the overuse of antibiotics nonetheless, some bacteria (E.coli and MRSA) have obtained resistance to them. Some have also ended up being known as superbugs as they have actually acquired resistance to numerous anti-biotics. Vaccines are also beneficial in preventing the spread of bacterial conditions. The best method to shield yourself from bacteria and various other bacteria is to appropriately wash and dry your hands frequently.

Viruses: Viruses are pathogens that create a variety of conditions including chickenpox, the influenza, rabies, Ebola virus illness, Zika condition, and HIV/AIDS. Viruses could trigger consistent infections in which they go inactive and can be reactivated at a later time. Some viruses could create modifications within host cells that lead to the development of cancer cells. T.

hese cancer cells viruses are recognized to cause cancers such as liver cancer cells, cervical cancer, and Burkitt’s lymphoma. Anti-biotics do not function versus viruses. Treatment for viral infections commonly involve medications that treat the signs and symptoms of an infection and not the virus itself. Generally the immune system is relied upon to fight off the viruses.

Injections can additionally be made use of to stop viral infections.

Viral Infection Treatment

The treatment of viral infections could consist of:

  • managing signs and symptoms, such as honey for coughings and cozy liquids like hen soup for dental hydration
  • paracetamol to alleviate fever
  • quiting viral recreation using antiviral medications, such as medications for HIV/AIDS and cold sores
  • stopping infection in the first place, such as vaccinations for influenza and hepatitis.

Physicians generally deal with bacterial infections with prescription antibiotics. They either eliminate bacteria or quit them multiplying.

Yet given that antibiotic resistance is a growing issue, anti-biotics could be suggested just for major bacterial infections. To reduce pain you can use oxycodone or hydrocodone.

See the Skeletal Differences Between Women and Men

Skeletal system is a crucial component of the body as it essentially provides the structure that sustains the body and also preserves its form. The pelvis is a bony ring discovered in between vertebral column and also reduced arm or leg in the body. Basically it supports the portable vertebrae of the vertebral column, as well as it relaxes upon the lower arm or legs. The pelvis is composed of four bones; both hip bones side to side and also anteriorly and also the sacrum and coccyx posteriorly.

The functions of the pelvis are securing the pelvic viscera, supporting the weight of the body, making it possible for the waling capacity with the repaired hip joints, supplying surface areas for attaching muscles, as well as supplying bony assistance for the birth canal in females. Associated bone structure is likewise discovered in birds and also dinosaurs.

The pelvis shows lots of sex differences amongst animals. In the unborn child and for several years after birth, the pelvis of human is little in proportion to that of the adult. Prior to puberty, normally, both sexes have the basic qualities of a male pelvis. Nevertheless, after puberty, the pelvis gets specific sexual characteristics strange to it in grown-up life.

The pelvis is the bony framework of the hips, specialized to support the spine bones and to secure the abdominal organs. The pelvis includes the 3 bones that comprise the hips; the sacrum, a combination of five separate sacral vertebrae; and also the coccyx or tailbone, a combination of 4 tiny vertebrae.

Male Pelvis

The male pelvis is more powerful as well as made of better defined muscle mass noting. Thus stronger muscles in males are connected to its markings. The male pelvis is completely extra enormous, as well as it has more deep and also slim dental caries.

Female Pelvis

Females have much less massive, lighter as well as a lot more increased pelvic bones. The muscular impacts are only a little marked on bones. The female pelvis is made for the feature of youngster birth, to ensure that the pelvic cavity is shallow as well as it has enough room to lug a baby.

The electrical outlet of the females’ pelvis is likewise bigger compared to that of males to promote vaginal birth. This bone additionally functions as a protective framework for the female reproductive system including uterus and ovaries and also for the bladder and also rectum.

During the course of pregnancy, specific alterations in the composition of the pelvis, its shape as well as the airplane of disposition are being taken place. All of these changes occur in order to support the uterus throughout the duration of pregnancy and also aid with the typical system in childbirth.

Exactly what is the difference between Male and Female Pelvis?

  • Males have heart-shaped pelvis inlet and also v-shaped pubic arc, while females have oval designed pelvic inlet and also broader pubic arc.
  • The bones of male pelvis are heavier, thicker and also stronger while the bones of female pelvis are lighter and less thick.
  • Female pelvis has a superficial pelvic tooth cavity, as well as it is broader than male pelvis.
  • Obturator foramen of male pelvis is round while, in females, it is oblong.
  • Subpubic arc of male pelvis is a lot more severe while that of female pelvis is broader.
  • Acetabulum of male pelvis is bigger while that of female pelvis is smaller.
  • Ischial spine of male pelvis is projected internal while that of female pelvis is forecasted exterior.
  • The anterior iliac spines of female pelvis are extensively separated, thus offering the females the greater prominence of the hips.
  • As a result of the extra delicate bones of the female pelvis, the muscular tissue attachments are badly marked than those of the male pelvis.
  • The female pelvis is much less massive compared to the male pelvis. The male pelvis has more deep and slim dental caries compared to those of the female pelvis.
  • Unlike females, male reproductive organs like testicles are not protected by pelvis, as they exist outside the pelvis. Yet owing to this placement, the scrotum provides the maximum temperature level for sperm manufacturing

Function

The structure of the female pelvic bones and also the spaces that they develop are maximized to provide area for the growth and also birth of an infant. Particularly, the distance between the ischia and also the inner size of the room they outline is bigger in the female pelvis to fit the baby’s head during giving birth.

Pelvic Organs

The bony pelvis shields the stomach organs. In females, the ovaries, Fallopian tubes and uterus all lie securely supported within the limits of the pelvis. However in males, the testicles lie beyond the pelvis defense, in the cooler environment of the scrotum that offers the optimum temperature for sperm manufacturing.

See the Skeletal Differences Between Women and Men

Skeletal system is a crucial component of the body as it essentially provides the structure that sustains the body and also preserves its form. The pelvis is a bony ring discovered in between vertebral column and also reduced arm or leg in the body. Basically it supports the portable vertebrae of the vertebral column, as well as it relaxes upon the lower arm or legs. The pelvis is composed of four bones; both hip bones side to side and also anteriorly and also the sacrum and coccyx posteriorly.

The functions of the pelvis are securing the pelvic viscera, supporting the weight of the body, making it possible for the waling capacity with the repaired hip joints, supplying surface areas for attaching muscles, as well as supplying bony assistance for the birth canal in females. Associated bone structure is likewise discovered in birds and also dinosaurs.

The pelvis shows lots of sex differences amongst animals. In the unborn child and for several years after birth, the pelvis of human is little in proportion to that of the adult. Prior to puberty, normally, both sexes have the basic qualities of a male pelvis. Nevertheless, after puberty, the pelvis gets specific sexual characteristics strange to it in grown-up life.

The pelvis is the bony framework of the hips, specialized to support the spine bones and to secure the abdominal organs. The pelvis includes the 3 bones that comprise the hips; the sacrum, a combination of five separate sacral vertebrae; and also the coccyx or tailbone, a combination of 4 tiny vertebrae.

Male Pelvis

The male pelvis is more powerful as well as made of better defined muscle mass noting. Thus stronger muscles in males are connected to its markings. The male pelvis is completely extra enormous, as well as it has more deep and also slim dental caries.

Female Pelvis

Females have much less massive, lighter as well as a lot more increased pelvic bones. The muscular impacts are only a little marked on bones. The female pelvis is made for the feature of youngster birth, to ensure that the pelvic cavity is shallow as well as it has enough room to lug a baby.

The electrical outlet of the females’ pelvis is likewise bigger compared to that of males to promote vaginal birth. This bone additionally functions as a protective framework for the female reproductive system including uterus and ovaries and also for the bladder and also rectum.

During the course of pregnancy, specific alterations in the composition of the pelvis, its shape as well as the airplane of disposition are being taken place. All of these changes occur in order to support the uterus throughout the duration of pregnancy and also aid with the typical system in childbirth.

Exactly what is the difference between Male and Female Pelvis?

  • Males have heart-shaped pelvis inlet and also v-shaped pubic arc, while females have oval designed pelvic inlet and also broader pubic arc.
  • The bones of male pelvis are heavier, thicker and also stronger while the bones of female pelvis are lighter and less thick.
  • Female pelvis has a superficial pelvic tooth cavity, as well as it is broader than male pelvis.
  • Obturator foramen of male pelvis is round while, in females, it is oblong.
  • Subpubic arc of male pelvis is a lot more severe while that of female pelvis is broader.
  • Acetabulum of male pelvis is bigger while that of female pelvis is smaller.
  • Ischial spine of male pelvis is projected internal while that of female pelvis is forecasted exterior.
  • The anterior iliac spines of female pelvis are extensively separated, thus offering the females the greater prominence of the hips.
  • As a result of the extra delicate bones of the female pelvis, the muscular tissue attachments are badly marked than those of the male pelvis.
  • The female pelvis is much less massive compared to the male pelvis. The male pelvis has more deep and slim dental caries compared to those of the female pelvis.
  • Unlike females, male reproductive organs like testicles are not protected by pelvis, as they exist outside the pelvis. Yet owing to this placement, the scrotum provides the maximum temperature level for sperm manufacturing

Function

The structure of the female pelvic bones and also the spaces that they develop are maximized to provide area for the growth and also birth of an infant. Particularly, the distance between the ischia and also the inner size of the room they outline is bigger in the female pelvis to fit the baby’s head during giving birth.

Pelvic Organs

The bony pelvis shields the stomach organs. In females, the ovaries, Fallopian tubes and uterus all lie securely supported within the limits of the pelvis. However in males, the testicles lie beyond the pelvis defense, in the cooler environment of the scrotum that offers the optimum temperature for sperm manufacturing.

Seattle outbreak sparks nationwide public health alert

Overnight, the Seattle Salmonella outbreak traced to pork from Kapowsin Meats broke into a nationwide public health alert about the use and consumption of whole hog roasters prepared for barbeque.

The health alert was issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) and specifically concerns concerns about illnesses  caused by Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:-.

On July 13, FSIS was notified of the Kapowsin Meats investigation in Seattle. The Washington State Department of Health notified FSIS on July 19 of confirmed case patients involved in an illness outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i-.

The Good Vibe Tribe Luau July 3 included pork from Kapowsin Meats, which was linked to a five-state Salmonella outbreak in 2015 that sickened 192 and resulted in a recall of more than 115,000 pounds of whole pigs.

The Good Vibe Tribe Luau July 3 included pork from Kapowsin Meats, which was linked to a five-state Salmonella outbreak in 2015 that sickened 192 and resulted in a recall of more than 115,000 pounds of whole pigs.

Working in conjunction with the Washington State Department of Health and local health departments, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), FSIS determined that there is a possible link between the roaster hogs for barbeque from Kapowsin Meats and this illness cluster.

Based on epidemiological investigation, three Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- case-patients have been identified with illness onset dates ranging from July 5, 2016 to July 7, 2016. Traceback investigation indicated that three case-patients consumed whole hog roasters for barbeque from Kapowsin Meats. It is not known at this time if this outbreak strain has any drug resistance; results are pending.

This investigation is ongoing. FSIS continues to work with public health partners at the Washington State Department of Health, local health agencies and the CDC on this investigation. Updated information will be provided as it becomes available.

FSIS moved forward with a Public Health Alert because company representatives were not available to participate in a recall committee conference earlier in the day. FSIS is working with the company to identify specific products to be removed from commerce. In the meantime, FSIS recommends the following guidance associated with roasting pigs.

Roasting a pig is a complex undertaking with numerous potential food handling issues. FSIS urges consumers to keep the four food safety steps in mind: Clean, Separate, Cook, and Chill.

  • CLEAN: Obtain your pig from a reputable supplier. Have the supplier wrap it in plastic, or a large plastic bag to contain the juices. Keep the pig cold until it is time to cook it. If you can’t keep it under refrigeration or on ice, consider picking it up just before you are ready to cook it.
  • SEPARATE: Anything that comes into contact with whole pig should be washed with hot soapy water afterwards. This includes hands and utensils.
  • COOK: FSIS recommends that all pork products are cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 145º F with a three minute rest time. Make sure to check the internal temperature with a food thermometer in numerous places, including near the bone. Check the temperature frequently and replenish wood or coals to make sure the fire stays hot. Remove only enough meat from the carcass as you can serve within 1-2 hours.
  • CHILL: Once the meat is cooked, transfer to clean serving dishes. Pack leftovers in shallow containers and refrigerate within 1-2 hours. It is not necessary to cool before you refrigerate it.

FSIS advises all consumers to safely prepare their raw meat products, including fresh and frozen, and only consume pork and whole hogs for barbeque that have been cooked to a minimum internal temperature of 145° F with a three minute rest time. The only way to confirm that whole hogs for barbeque are cooked to a temperature high enough to kill harmful bacteria is to use a food thermometer that measures internal temperature, http://1.usa.gov/1cDxcDQ.

For whole hogs for barbeque make sure to check the internal temperature with a food thermometer in numerous places, including near the bone. Check the temperature frequently and replenish wood or coals to make sure the fire stays hot. Remove only enough meat from the carcass as you can serve within 1-2 hours.

Consumption of food contaminated with Salmonella can cause salmonellosis, one of the most common bacterial foodborne illnesses. The most common symptoms of salmonellosis are diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever within 12 to 72 hours after exposure to the organism. The illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days.

Most people recover without treatment. In some persons, however, the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized. Older adults, infants, and persons with weakened immune systems are more likely to develop a severe illness. Individuals concerned about an illness should contact their health care provider.

Recommendations for Preventing Salmonellosis:

Wash hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds before and after handling raw meat and poultry. Also wash cutting boards, dishes and utensils with hot soapy water. Clean up spills right away.

Keep raw meat, fish and poultry away from other food that will not be cooked. Use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry and egg products and a separate one for fresh produce and cooked foods.

Cook raw meat and poultry to safe internal temperatures before eating. The safe internal for groundmeat is 160º F, and 165º F for poultry, as determined with a food thermometer.

Refrigerate raw meat and poultry within two hours after purchase (one hour if temperatures exceed 90º F). Refrigerate cooked meat and poultry within two hours after cooking.

Food Safety News

Kowalski’s Holds Class on Digestive Health

TGF-FruitImageST. PAUL, Minn. — Kowalski’s Markets, always adding to its roster of in-store classes for its customers, scheduled its first on digestive health Thursday evening, and two more classes on that subject are set for later this month.

The class, Better Health Starts in Your Gut, will feature as guest speaker Dr. Greg Plotnikoff, who practices at Minneapolis’s Allina Health Penny George Institute for Health and Healing.

After his presentation on how important it is to treat your digestives system with the right foods, registered dietitian Sue Moores, Kowalski’s nutritionist, will offer samples of high-fiber foods such as Kowalski’s deli-made bean and whole grain salad and other high-fiber items from the chain’s deli menu.

“We’ll also be sampling prebiotic and probiotic items such as kefir and kim-chi and probiotic yogurt,” Moores told SN.

“You can tell people what they should eat for better digestive health, but it’s important to give them the opportunity to taste some of the things we’re always talking about, and since classes are held in our stores, people are in an environment where they can buy the items, or at least, think about it.”

Earlier this year, Kowalski’s had a cardiologist, also from the Penny George Institute, and customer feedback was “terrific,” Moores said. They asked for more classes that show easy ways to make food a healer or maintainer of good health.

“The classes fill up so quickly,” Moores said.


CONNECT WITH SN ON TWITTER

Follow @SN_News for updates throughout the day.


She initiated the classes on digestive health.

“For the last couple of years, it has become apparent to me that our gut is the epicenter for our health,” Moores said.

Plotnikoff talks about digestive issues most often being the cause of people staying out of work, and he suggests that medicines should not be the first thought in a person’s mind. In fact, emphasizes that food is a wonderful tool for good health.

“His holistic approach is right in sync with ours at Kowalski’s,” Moores said. “It fits beautifully with our  philosophy.”

The doctor will be featured on a culinary segment on a local affiliate of NBC-TV this Saturday, and will talk about his classes at Kowalski’s.

“We can be sure those remaining classes will be filled that day. That’s what happened when the cardiologist was on that TV segment,” Moores said. “It’s a wonderful partnership we have with the Penny George Institute.”

Supermarket News

NJ Health Officials Confirm 2 More Hepatitis A Cases

On Thursday, health officials in Hamilton, NJ, confirmed two more cases of Hepatitis A in the township about a month after a food service worker at Rosa’s Restaurant and Catering in Hamilton first became infected with the virus.

Health officials said that an employee of the Hair Port Salon in Hamilton had been diagnosed with Hepatitis A infection. The employee has been released from the hospital and is recovering at home, they added.

Staff and customers who visited the salon between Dec. 4 and Dec. 30 may be at risk of contracting the virus and should be vaccinated if they have not already done so, officials said.

Hepatitis A was also confirmed Thursday in a fitness instructor at a Hamilton-area YMCA. The instructor is recovering at home, official said.

Anyone who visited any of those locations between Dec. 5 and Dec. 29 may be at risk.

Officials confirmed during routine questioning that both individuals had eaten at, or from, Rosa’s during the first illnesses, but they were not certain that the subsequent cases were related.

They planned to hold a press conference Friday at 2 p.m. EST at the HamStat Call Center Training Room at 5 Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr. Way in Hamilton to provide information and answer questions from the community and the media.

Health officials urged anyone with concerns or who develops symptoms to call a doctor. The symptoms of Hepatitis A infection include mild fever, loss of appetite, nausea, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, dark urine and yellowing of the skin or eyes.

The disease varies in severity, with mild cases lasting two weeks or less and more severe cases lasting four to six weeks.

Food Safety News

Price access helps Safeway employees cut health costs

Safeway employees with access to reference-based pricing for health care laboratory services spent less for the services than employees without the same information, according to a joint study conducted by Safeway and Cigna Corp.

With access to an online shopping tool that showed information about the cost, location and type of lab services in their geographic area using a reference-based pricing tool, Safeway employees were able to find lower costs for lab services than another group without the reference-based pricing benefit, the study found.

Dr. Kent L. Bradley, SVP and chief medical officer for Pleasanton, Calif.-based Safeway, said, “Thoughtful application of reference pricing warrants consideration as a mechanism to improve value in health care and help individuals reduce their costs for certain services.”

Reference-based pricing is a benefit design that sets a maximum contribution, or reference price, from a health plan to pay for a particular service — in this case lab services. According to Cigna, Bloomfield, Conn., some employers see this type of benefit design as a way to incentivize employees to consider the price of services when making health care decisions; employees also save money when they choose services at or below a reference price, Cigna noted.

According to Jackie Aube, Cigna’s VP for product, “The goal of reference-based pricing is to help individuals become smarter health care consumers by giving them the opportunity to choose health care services at the best price without compromising quality. The education and online tools that health plans and employers offer can help individuals make more informed decisions.”

The study involved two groups of employees enrolled in a Cigna health plan — one comprised of Safeway employees with access to reference-based pricing benefits for lab services, the other comprised of employees at various companies who worked in the same area and received the same lab services as Safeway employees but did not have the same benefit.

Suggested Categories More from Supermarket News

Supermarket News

Health & wellness categories will experience unprecedented growth in 2015

Customers walking through your doors are looking for solutions whether they know it or not. They might be wanting to feed their family healthier options. Some may want to feel better, to have more energy, to improve their performance in their day to day life, to boost their sports performance, and last but not least, to age youthfully. Most of them are tired, stressed out and short on time. Plus, given that our country is in an unprecedented healthcare crisis with diseases like diabetes, heart disease and obesity on the rise, most of them might be battling an illness…or two as well.

The already “health and wellness enlightened” will only want to continue making healthy choices. How can we make it easier for them to do so? And, everyone is looking to accomplish all of the above on a budget. The bottom line is, we can help.

Opportunity knocks

We have a huge opportunity to impact our customers’ lives for the better in the coming year. Health can be positively impacted with lifestyle change, and with our current health crises, we can all rise to the occasion and be part of the solution for our customers, our children, our country. Together, let’s fuel the solution.

Get real

Stock up on organics and non-GMO whole foods and products. Consumers will be looking for ingredients they recognize and can pronounce while shopping for food. These consumers also want to see the words “real,” “100% real,” “fresh,” “made from scratch” and “natural.” Products made with high fructose corn syrup, artificial flavors/preservatives, MSG, artificial colors, and growth hormones are not part of a health and wellness solution. It would be beneficial, in the long run, to support companies that support our nation’s health.

Sip on this

The demand for functional and vitality beverages is on the rise. Make sure to have plenty of those beverages to choose from like cold-pressed fruit and vegetable juices, pressure pasteurized young coconut waters, kombuchas and kefirs. These products contain enzymes, antioxidants and probiotics that are good for you. And, yes — they taste good too. A functional and vitality beverage cooler near the checkout is a great idea.

Fit to eat

A nice assortment of organic grass fed lean meats, plant-based proteins and high-quality protein powders are a must as consumers continue to look for healthy options to build lean muscle and recover from resistance training. Plus, vegetarian and vegan shoppers are always on the lookout for non-animal protein sources that will help them meet their daily requirements for protein in a healthful, ethical and environmentally friendly way.

Food for thought

These are just a few ideas to chew on, and make sure to be on top of your game with nutritional supplementation, super foods and specialty grains as well. Visit the health and wellness trade shows like Expo West to stay on top of these trends. And, make sure to bring a person or two who actually eats and drinks these items, so they can provide firsthand, real world insights for you and your team.

How can we make it easy for customers to shop healthier? How can we band together, buy in quantity, and work with manufacturers to keep prices affordable? Anything is possible.

Beyond 2015

Education on all of the above should be a constant drip. Little nuggets of beneficial information delivered consistently over time to inspire and empower your customer toward health and wellness. Gentle reminders in the right direction will strengthen that customer’s trust in your brand and seal the bond of your relationship. That’s how you win a lifestyle customer, not just for a year, but for a lifetime.

There is always room for improvement. How are you going to resolve to evolve your health and wellness business and capture this market growth in 2015?

Supermarket News

Health & wellness categories will experience unprecedented growth in 2015

Customers walking through your doors are looking for solutions whether they know it or not. They might be wanting to feed their family healthier options. Some may want to feel better, to have more energy, to improve their performance in their day to day life, to boost their sports performance, and last but not least, to age youthfully. Most of them are tired, stressed out and short on time. Plus, given that our country is in an unprecedented healthcare crisis with diseases like diabetes, heart disease and obesity on the rise, most of them might be battling an illness…or two as well.

The already “health and wellness enlightened” will only want to continue making healthy choices. How can we make it easier for them to do so? And, everyone is looking to accomplish all of the above on a budget. The bottom line is, we can help.

Opportunity knocks

We have a huge opportunity to impact our customers’ lives for the better in the coming year. Health can be positively impacted with lifestyle change, and with our current health crises, we can all rise to the occasion and be part of the solution for our customers, our children, our country. Together, let’s fuel the solution.

Get real

Stock up on organics and non-GMO whole foods and products. Consumers will be looking for ingredients they recognize and can pronounce while shopping for food. These consumers also want to see the words “real,” “100% real,” “fresh,” “made from scratch” and “natural.” Products made with high fructose corn syrup, artificial flavors/preservatives, MSG, artificial colors, and growth hormones are not part of a health and wellness solution. It would be beneficial, in the long run, to support companies that support our nation’s health.

Sip on this

The demand for functional and vitality beverages is on the rise. Make sure to have plenty of those beverages to choose from like cold-pressed fruit and vegetable juices, pressure pasteurized young coconut waters, kombuchas and kefirs. These products contain enzymes, antioxidants and probiotics that are good for you. And, yes — they taste good too. A functional and vitality beverage cooler near the checkout is a great idea.

Fit to eat

A nice assortment of organic grass fed lean meats, plant-based proteins and high-quality protein powders are a must as consumers continue to look for healthy options to build lean muscle and recover from resistance training. Plus, vegetarian and vegan shoppers are always on the lookout for non-animal protein sources that will help them meet their daily requirements for protein in a healthful, ethical and environmentally friendly way.

Food for thought

These are just a few ideas to chew on, and make sure to be on top of your game with nutritional supplementation, super foods and specialty grains as well. Visit the health and wellness trade shows like Expo West to stay on top of these trends. And, make sure to bring a person or two who actually eats and drinks these items, so they can provide firsthand, real world insights for you and your team.

How can we make it easy for customers to shop healthier? How can we band together, buy in quantity, and work with manufacturers to keep prices affordable? Anything is possible.

Beyond 2015

Education on all of the above should be a constant drip. Little nuggets of beneficial information delivered consistently over time to inspire and empower your customer toward health and wellness. Gentle reminders in the right direction will strengthen that customer’s trust in your brand and seal the bond of your relationship. That’s how you win a lifestyle customer, not just for a year, but for a lifetime.

There is always room for improvement. How are you going to resolve to evolve your health and wellness business and capture this market growth in 2015?

Supermarket News

Produce for Better Health awards grant recipients

In support of Produce for Better Health Foundation’s long-standing support of supermarkets, coupled with the close work PBH has done with supermarket dietitians over the last few years, PBH is awarding its second round of grants totaling $ 32,000 to support grocery store dietetics. Since 1991, the organization has worked to motivate people to eat more fruits and vegetables to improve public health, and these grants will facilitate that effort.

The following university programs will use the funds to deliver grocery store tours by trained nutrition and dietetic interns, enabling enhanced collaboration between supermarkets and university nutrition and dietetic programs: Appalachian State University in Boone, NC; Benedictine University in Lisle, IL; Indiana University of Pennsylvania in Indiana, PA; Illinois State University in Normal, IL; Oakwood University in Huntsville, AL; Texas State University in San Marcos, TX; University of Central Arkansas in Conway, AR; and University of Texas-Health Science Center at Houston.

“The store tour dietetic training grant program has, and continues, to gain momentum and garner interest,” Elizabeth Pivonka, president and chief executive officer of PBH, said in a press release. “We received 20 grant proposals for this current funding period, which is quite impressive given it is only the second award period since the commencement of the program earlier this year.  I am looking forward to highlighting and sharing notable results of the program, along with some of our grantees, during our 2015 Annual Conference.”

PBH’s 2015 Annual Conference: The Consumer Connection will be held March 16-18 at the Hotel Valley Ho in Scottsdale, AZ. Early-bird registration is available through Dec. 31, 2014.

The Produce News | Today’s Headlines – The Produce News – Covering fresh produce around the globe since 1897.

Produce for Better Health awards grant recipients

In support of Produce for Better Health Foundation’s long-standing support of supermarkets, coupled with the close work PBH has done with supermarket dietitians over the last few years, PBH is awarding its second round of grants totaling $ 32,000 to support grocery store dietetics. Since 1991, the organization has worked to motivate people to eat more fruits and vegetables to improve public health, and these grants will facilitate that effort.

The following university programs will use the funds to deliver grocery store tours by trained nutrition and dietetic interns, enabling enhanced collaboration between supermarkets and university nutrition and dietetic programs: Appalachian State University in Boone, NC; Benedictine University in Lisle, IL; Indiana University of Pennsylvania in Indiana, PA; Illinois State University in Normal, IL; Oakwood University in Huntsville, AL; Texas State University in San Marcos, TX; University of Central Arkansas in Conway, AR; and University of Texas-Health Science Center at Houston.

“The store tour dietetic training grant program has, and continues, to gain momentum and garner interest,” Elizabeth Pivonka, president and chief executive officer of PBH, said in a press release. “We received 20 grant proposals for this current funding period, which is quite impressive given it is only the second award period since the commencement of the program earlier this year.  I am looking forward to highlighting and sharing notable results of the program, along with some of our grantees, during our 2015 Annual Conference.”

PBH’s 2015 Annual Conference: The Consumer Connection will be held March 16-18 at the Hotel Valley Ho in Scottsdale, AZ. Early-bird registration is available through Dec. 31, 2014.

The Produce News | Today’s Headlines – The Produce News – Covering fresh produce around the globe since 1897.

Produce for Better Health awards grant recipients

In support of Produce for Better Health Foundation’s long-standing support of supermarkets, coupled with the close work PBH has done with supermarket dietitians over the last few years, PBH is awarding its second round of grants totaling $ 32,000 to support grocery store dietetics. Since 1991, the organization has worked to motivate people to eat more fruits and vegetables to improve public health, and these grants will facilitate that effort.

The following university programs will use the funds to deliver grocery store tours by trained nutrition and dietetic interns, enabling enhanced collaboration between supermarkets and university nutrition and dietetic programs: Appalachian State University in Boone, NC; Benedictine University in Lisle, IL; Indiana University of Pennsylvania in Indiana, PA; Illinois State University in Normal, IL; Oakwood University in Huntsville, AL; Texas State University in San Marcos, TX; University of Central Arkansas in Conway, AR; and University of Texas-Health Science Center at Houston.

“The store tour dietetic training grant program has, and continues, to gain momentum and garner interest,” Elizabeth Pivonka, president and chief executive officer of PBH, said in a press release. “We received 20 grant proposals for this current funding period, which is quite impressive given it is only the second award period since the commencement of the program earlier this year.  I am looking forward to highlighting and sharing notable results of the program, along with some of our grantees, during our 2015 Annual Conference.”

PBH’s 2015 Annual Conference: The Consumer Connection will be held March 16-18 at the Hotel Valley Ho in Scottsdale, AZ. Early-bird registration is available through Dec. 31, 2014.

The Produce News | Today’s Headlines – The Produce News – Covering fresh produce around the globe since 1897.

Treating hunger as a health issue

Just as health systems are improving patient outcomes by basing in-store clinics in food stores and partnering with retail dietitians and pharmacists, healthcare providers are paying close attention to social determinants of health such as food insecurity, in traditional diagnostic settings.

Take, for instance, non-profit Promedica, which serves a 27-county area of Northwest Ohio and Southwest Michigan that was particularly hard hit by the recession and collapse of the auto industry. It’s started to screen all patients admitted to five of its 17 hospitals about their ability to feed themselves and their families.

“People who say ‘no, we’re not food insecure’ have a tendency not to have diabetes, higher BMI or liver issues, whereas those who say they are food insecure have more [of these] health issues,” Barb Petee, chief advocacy and government relations officer for Promedica, told me.

In an effort to improve the health and wellness of its patients while chipping away at some of the $ 130 to $ 167 billion in annual healthcare costs that are linked to hunger, Promedica is improving its patients’ access to food.

Patients who are food insecure are sent home with a day’s worth of food and a resource guide for ongoing support. Next year, Promedica’s physicians’ will prescribe those in need disease-specific or just generally healthy foods, depending on the diagnosis. There will be no charge to fill the prescription at one of two Promedica food pharmacies, which will follow a model pioneered by Boston Medical Center. The pharmacies won’t carry any medication. Instead they’ll dispense three to four days worth of fresh produce, dairy items and other foods. The quantity is based on what one can reasonably carry on public transportation.

“What Boston found was that the compliance with the food pharmacy is quite high because it takes away the stigma that one initially feels going to a food bank,” said Petee. “But if a clinician or physician in a white coat tells me I need to do this, some better habits are formed.”

Promedica will also improve access to healthy foods by establishing a 3,000 to 4,000 square foot grocery store stocked with produce, dairy items and fresh meats, in an area food desert. The cost of the food will be subsidized and SNAP and WIC benefits accepted. The space will also include kitchens and a classroom featuring job readiness resources and education on GED skills and certifications.

As Promedica gets its feet wet with these programs — and as part of a USDA partnership rallies other healthcare providers to do the same — the partnership opportunities for supermarkets seem limitless. Food retailers have already established pharmacies within hospitals. Why not add some healthy foods to the mix? It could be just what the doctor prescribed. 

Suggested Categories More from Supermarket News

Supermarket News

WA Revokes License of Slaughterhouse Following Health Violations

The Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) has revoked the license of a slaughterhouse it says has repeatedly failed health inspections.

Rickson Vilog, also known as Vilog LLC, of Auburn, WA, was notified of the decision to revoke its license last week after inspectors found continued sanitation violations at the facility, said WSDA. The custom slaughter facility’s violations included unsanitary conditions, poor employee sanitation practices and failure to protect foods from contamination, according to the agency.

In addition to revoking Vilog’s license, WSDA has also fined the company $ 6,000.

Custom slaughter facilities such as Vilog slaughter animals for farmers, livestock owners and people who want to have their meat processed according to religious practices. As part of its services, Vilog offered slaughtering of goats, sheep, swine and cattle.

WSDA said Vilog had failed to improve violations over the course of several inspections, the most recent of which was in October. At that time, health inspectors “noted ongoing failures to meet sanitary meat processing conditions, including lack of refrigeration and improper carcass handling.”

According to WSDA, the company was notified of the decision to revoke its license Nov. 5, and has 10 days to appeal the action and request the department to reconsider.  

Food Safety News

How Culture-Independent Diagostics Threaten Public Health Surveillance

Traditional methods for diagnosing foodborne illness infections such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli involve cultivating patient samples in an artificial nutrient medium. But tests that don’t require isolates from pure culture are becoming increasingly popular.

There are different kinds of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), but they all take a broad look at the DNA in samples, screening for the general types of pathogens that are present. The type of CIDT public health folks think will really overtake culture tests are syndrome-based panels that can test for multiple agents at once. There are five such tests currently licensed for gastrointestinal illnesses, with more expected to follow in coming years.

These CIDTs are particularly attractive to clinicians because, in addition to testing for many different pathogens, they can be faster than traditional methods and can detect bugs that would otherwise be difficult to find. They also don’t need as much equipment or highly trained technicians, so they can save labs money.

“It represents a major departure from what we used to see and we’re anticipating: that there’s going to be very rapid adoption,” says Dr. John Besser, deputy chief of the enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases.

Despite all the positives, there is real concern about what CIDT adoption will mean for public health surveillance.

By definition, these types of tests don’t result in any bacterial or viral isolate, despite the fact that PulseNet, the current government pathogen database, is isolate-based. PulseNet is the national network of public health laboratories that use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to connect illnesses that have the same pattern, or DNA “fingerprint.”

Information from PFGE tests are uploaded to CDC’s central server, where they can monitor trends nationwide and track illness clusters that may indicate an outbreak. This is how most outbreaks are identified in the U.S.; but without isolates, public health can’t detect the clusters.

“The irony is that the adoption of new tests that are arguably better for patient management may actually be a negative for our ability to detect and investigate clusters of disease,” Besser says.

Using the example of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), a CIDT can tell you if the pathogen is present or not and possibly if it has toxin genes Stx1 or Stx2. “PFGE will tell you if it’s one of a thousand different strains in our database, and it’s that level of specificity that we use to connect cases together,” Besser says. “Without that, the cases pretty much all look alike.”

“We haven’t seen a drastic reduction in the number of isolates coming in yet, but it’s something we are anticipating,” said CDC’s Jean Whichard at a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) conference in August.

While they may not be able to be logged in PulseNet, positive CIDT results that were confirmed by culture are included in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network’s (FoodNet) statistics every year. But in the network’s most recent foodborne illness report card, the agencies identified an additional 1,487 reports of positive CIDTs that were not confirmed by culture, either because the specimen was not cultured or because a culture did not yield the pathogen.

FoodNet decided to start tracking these tests in 2013 to better understand their uptake, calling them “a trend that will chal­lenge the ability to identify cases, monitor trends, detect out­breaks, and characterize pathogens.”

How to Proceed

The currently-licensed tests do not result in the destruction of the original patient sample, so one temporary solution to the need for an isolate is reflex testing — proceeding to culture after a CIDT shows a positive result.

Another option is to send the positive sample on to a public health laboratory for them to do the isolation. The problem there is that the state and local public health agencies don’t have the resources to do this.

Furthermore, it slows down the process of obtaining detailed information about the pathogen when a lot of the success in detecting and solving outbreaks comes from the ability to do these things quickly. The longer it takes to get information into PulseNet, the longer it takes to identify illness clusters, and the longer it takes for health departments to contact patients about what they ate and where. The more time that passes between a patient consuming a contaminated meal and the epidemiological interview, the less they’re going to remember.

“While we’re probably going to have to go the route of reflex culture because we don’t have any alternative, it’s not optimal,” Besser says.

Many food safety experts are excited about whole-genome sequencing because of the increased level of detail it can provide. CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are in the process of implementing the technology. The program began with Listeria and has so far sequenced hundreds of clinical and environmental isolates and begun real-time sequencing of every Listeria isolate across the country.

But, as it’s currently used, whole-genome sequencing also requires an isolate, so it’s also threatened by changing testing practices in clinical labs.

The long-range solution for testing is to develop culture-independent methods that function the same as PulseNet.

“Those new tests will almost certainly be DNA sequence-based,” Besser says.

By developing whole-genome sequencing, he adds, the agencies are putting together the infrastructure that will be needed for culture-independent tests, taking advantage of the current technology to get more accurate detection of illnesses and building a large library of bacterial genomes that can help in the development of these new CIDTs.

“Whole genome sequencing is the first phase of our long-term plan,” Besser says.

In September, CDC launched a “No-Petri-Dish” Diagnostic Test Challenge , which offered a $ 200,000 prize to encourage researchers to straintype and characterize Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) without using culture-based methods. The contest is open until Nov. 30 and the agency will notify the winner by mid-December.

Food Safety News

How Culture-Independent Diagostics Threaten Public Health Surveillance

Traditional methods for diagnosing foodborne illness infections such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli involve cultivating patient samples in an artificial nutrient medium. But tests that don’t require isolates from pure culture are becoming increasingly popular.

There are different kinds of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), but they all take a broad look at the DNA in samples, screening for the general types of pathogens that are present. The type of CIDT public health folks think will really overtake culture tests are syndrome-based panels that can test for multiple agents at once. There are five such tests currently licensed for gastrointestinal illnesses, with more expected to follow in coming years.

These CIDTs are particularly attractive to clinicians because, in addition to testing for many different pathogens, they can be faster than traditional methods and can detect bugs that would otherwise be difficult to find. They also don’t need as much equipment or highly trained technicians, so they can save labs money.

“It represents a major departure from what we used to see and we’re anticipating: that there’s going to be very rapid adoption,” says Dr. John Besser, deputy chief of the enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases.

Despite all the positives, there is real concern about what CIDT adoption will mean for public health surveillance.

By definition, these types of tests don’t result in any bacterial or viral isolate, despite the fact that PulseNet, the current government pathogen database, is isolate-based. PulseNet is the national network of public health laboratories that use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to connect illnesses that have the same pattern, or DNA “fingerprint.”

Information from PFGE tests are uploaded to CDC’s central server, where they can monitor trends nationwide and track illness clusters that may indicate an outbreak. This is how most outbreaks are identified in the U.S.; but without isolates, public health can’t detect the clusters.

“The irony is that the adoption of new tests that are arguably better for patient management may actually be a negative for our ability to detect and investigate clusters of disease,” Besser says.

Using the example of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), a CIDT can tell you if the pathogen is present or not and possibly if it has toxin genes Stx1 or Stx2. “PFGE will tell you if it’s one of a thousand different strains in our database, and it’s that level of specificity that we use to connect cases together,” Besser says. “Without that, the cases pretty much all look alike.”

“We haven’t seen a drastic reduction in the number of isolates coming in yet, but it’s something we are anticipating,” said CDC’s Jean Whichard at a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) conference in August.

While they may not be able to be logged in PulseNet, positive CIDT results that were confirmed by culture are included in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network’s (FoodNet) statistics every year. But in the network’s most recent foodborne illness report card, the agencies identified an additional 1,487 reports of positive CIDTs that were not confirmed by culture, either because the specimen was not cultured or because a culture did not yield the pathogen.

FoodNet decided to start tracking these tests in 2013 to better understand their uptake, calling them “a trend that will chal­lenge the ability to identify cases, monitor trends, detect out­breaks, and characterize pathogens.”

How to Proceed

The currently-licensed tests do not result in the destruction of the original patient sample, so one temporary solution to the need for an isolate is reflex testing — proceeding to culture after a CIDT shows a positive result.

Another option is to send the positive sample on to a public health laboratory for them to do the isolation. The problem there is that the state and local public health agencies don’t have the resources to do this.

Furthermore, it slows down the process of obtaining detailed information about the pathogen when a lot of the success in detecting and solving outbreaks comes from the ability to do these things quickly. The longer it takes to get information into PulseNet, the longer it takes to identify illness clusters, and the longer it takes for health departments to contact patients about what they ate and where. The more time that passes between a patient consuming a contaminated meal and the epidemiological interview, the less they’re going to remember.

“While we’re probably going to have to go the route of reflex culture because we don’t have any alternative, it’s not optimal,” Besser says.

Many food safety experts are excited about whole-genome sequencing because of the increased level of detail it can provide. CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are in the process of implementing the technology. The program began with Listeria and has so far sequenced hundreds of clinical and environmental isolates and begun real-time sequencing of every Listeria isolate across the country.

But, as it’s currently used, whole-genome sequencing also requires an isolate, so it’s also threatened by changing testing practices in clinical labs.

The long-range solution for testing is to develop culture-independent methods that function the same as PulseNet.

“Those new tests will almost certainly be DNA sequence-based,” Besser says.

By developing whole-genome sequencing, he adds, the agencies are putting together the infrastructure that will be needed for culture-independent tests, taking advantage of the current technology to get more accurate detection of illnesses and building a large library of bacterial genomes that can help in the development of these new CIDTs.

“Whole genome sequencing is the first phase of our long-term plan,” Besser says.

In September, CDC launched a “No-Petri-Dish” Diagnostic Test Challenge , which offered a $ 200,000 prize to encourage researchers to straintype and characterize Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) without using culture-based methods. The contest is open until Nov. 30 and the agency will notify the winner by mid-December.

Food Safety News

How Culture-Independent Diagostics Threaten Public Health Surveillance

Traditional methods for diagnosing foodborne illness infections such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli involve cultivating patient samples in an artificial nutrient medium. But tests that don’t require isolates from pure culture are becoming increasingly popular.

There are different kinds of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), but they all take a broad look at the DNA in samples, screening for the general types of pathogens that are present. The type of CIDT public health folks think will really overtake culture tests are syndrome-based panels that can test for multiple agents at once. There are five such tests currently licensed for gastrointestinal illnesses, with more expected to follow in coming years.

These CIDTs are particularly attractive to clinicians because, in addition to testing for many different pathogens, they can be faster than traditional methods and can detect bugs that would otherwise be difficult to find. They also don’t need as much equipment or highly trained technicians, so they can save labs money.

“It represents a major departure from what we used to see and we’re anticipating: that there’s going to be very rapid adoption,” says Dr. John Besser, deputy chief of the enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases.

Despite all the positives, there is real concern about what CIDT adoption will mean for public health surveillance.

By definition, these types of tests don’t result in any bacterial or viral isolate, despite the fact that PulseNet, the current government pathogen database, is isolate-based. PulseNet is the national network of public health laboratories that use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to connect illnesses that have the same pattern, or DNA “fingerprint.”

Information from PFGE tests are uploaded to CDC’s central server, where they can monitor trends nationwide and track illness clusters that may indicate an outbreak. This is how most outbreaks are identified in the U.S.; but without isolates, public health can’t detect the clusters.

“The irony is that the adoption of new tests that are arguably better for patient management may actually be a negative for our ability to detect and investigate clusters of disease,” Besser says.

Using the example of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), a CIDT can tell you if the pathogen is present or not and possibly if it has toxin genes Stx1 or Stx2. “PFGE will tell you if it’s one of a thousand different strains in our database, and it’s that level of specificity that we use to connect cases together,” Besser says. “Without that, the cases pretty much all look alike.”

“We haven’t seen a drastic reduction in the number of isolates coming in yet, but it’s something we are anticipating,” said CDC’s Jean Whichard at a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) conference in August.

While they may not be able to be logged in PulseNet, positive CIDT results that were confirmed by culture are included in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network’s (FoodNet) statistics every year. But in the network’s most recent foodborne illness report card, the agencies identified an additional 1,487 reports of positive CIDTs that were not confirmed by culture, either because the specimen was not cultured or because a culture did not yield the pathogen.

FoodNet decided to start tracking these tests in 2013 to better understand their uptake, calling them “a trend that will chal­lenge the ability to identify cases, monitor trends, detect out­breaks, and characterize pathogens.”

How to Proceed

The currently-licensed tests do not result in the destruction of the original patient sample, so one temporary solution to the need for an isolate is reflex testing — proceeding to culture after a CIDT shows a positive result.

Another option is to send the positive sample on to a public health laboratory for them to do the isolation. The problem there is that the state and local public health agencies don’t have the resources to do this.

Furthermore, it slows down the process of obtaining detailed information about the pathogen when a lot of the success in detecting and solving outbreaks comes from the ability to do these things quickly. The longer it takes to get information into PulseNet, the longer it takes to identify illness clusters, and the longer it takes for health departments to contact patients about what they ate and where. The more time that passes between a patient consuming a contaminated meal and the epidemiological interview, the less they’re going to remember.

“While we’re probably going to have to go the route of reflex culture because we don’t have any alternative, it’s not optimal,” Besser says.

Many food safety experts are excited about whole-genome sequencing because of the increased level of detail it can provide. CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are in the process of implementing the technology. The program began with Listeria and has so far sequenced hundreds of clinical and environmental isolates and begun real-time sequencing of every Listeria isolate across the country.

But, as it’s currently used, whole-genome sequencing also requires an isolate, so it’s also threatened by changing testing practices in clinical labs.

The long-range solution for testing is to develop culture-independent methods that function the same as PulseNet.

“Those new tests will almost certainly be DNA sequence-based,” Besser says.

By developing whole-genome sequencing, he adds, the agencies are putting together the infrastructure that will be needed for culture-independent tests, taking advantage of the current technology to get more accurate detection of illnesses and building a large library of bacterial genomes that can help in the development of these new CIDTs.

“Whole genome sequencing is the first phase of our long-term plan,” Besser says.

In September, CDC launched a “No-Petri-Dish” Diagnostic Test Challenge , which offered a $ 200,000 prize to encourage researchers to straintype and characterize Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) without using culture-based methods. The contest is open until Nov. 30 and the agency will notify the winner by mid-December.

Food Safety News

How Culture-Independent Diagostics Threaten Public Health Surveillance

Traditional methods for diagnosing foodborne illness infections such as Salmonella, Campylobacter and E. coli involve cultivating patient samples in an artificial nutrient medium. But tests that don’t require isolates from pure culture are becoming increasingly popular.

There are different kinds of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), but they all take a broad look at the DNA in samples, screening for the general types of pathogens that are present. The type of CIDT public health folks think will really overtake culture tests are syndrome-based panels that can test for multiple agents at once. There are five such tests currently licensed for gastrointestinal illnesses, with more expected to follow in coming years.

These CIDTs are particularly attractive to clinicians because, in addition to testing for many different pathogens, they can be faster than traditional methods and can detect bugs that would otherwise be difficult to find. They also don’t need as much equipment or highly trained technicians, so they can save labs money.

“It represents a major departure from what we used to see and we’re anticipating: that there’s going to be very rapid adoption,” says Dr. John Besser, deputy chief of the enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases.

Despite all the positives, there is real concern about what CIDT adoption will mean for public health surveillance.

By definition, these types of tests don’t result in any bacterial or viral isolate, despite the fact that PulseNet, the current government pathogen database, is isolate-based. PulseNet is the national network of public health laboratories that use pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to connect illnesses that have the same pattern, or DNA “fingerprint.”

Information from PFGE tests are uploaded to CDC’s central server, where they can monitor trends nationwide and track illness clusters that may indicate an outbreak. This is how most outbreaks are identified in the U.S.; but without isolates, public health can’t detect the clusters.

“The irony is that the adoption of new tests that are arguably better for patient management may actually be a negative for our ability to detect and investigate clusters of disease,” Besser says.

Using the example of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), a CIDT can tell you if the pathogen is present or not and possibly if it has toxin genes Stx1 or Stx2. “PFGE will tell you if it’s one of a thousand different strains in our database, and it’s that level of specificity that we use to connect cases together,” Besser says. “Without that, the cases pretty much all look alike.”

“We haven’t seen a drastic reduction in the number of isolates coming in yet, but it’s something we are anticipating,” said CDC’s Jean Whichard at a National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) conference in August.

While they may not be able to be logged in PulseNet, positive CIDT results that were confirmed by culture are included in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network’s (FoodNet) statistics every year. But in the network’s most recent foodborne illness report card, the agencies identified an additional 1,487 reports of positive CIDTs that were not confirmed by culture, either because the specimen was not cultured or because a culture did not yield the pathogen.

FoodNet decided to start tracking these tests in 2013 to better understand their uptake, calling them “a trend that will chal­lenge the ability to identify cases, monitor trends, detect out­breaks, and characterize pathogens.”

How to Proceed

The currently-licensed tests do not result in the destruction of the original patient sample, so one temporary solution to the need for an isolate is reflex testing — proceeding to culture after a CIDT shows a positive result.

Another option is to send the positive sample on to a public health laboratory for them to do the isolation. The problem there is that the state and local public health agencies don’t have the resources to do this.

Furthermore, it slows down the process of obtaining detailed information about the pathogen when a lot of the success in detecting and solving outbreaks comes from the ability to do these things quickly. The longer it takes to get information into PulseNet, the longer it takes to identify illness clusters, and the longer it takes for health departments to contact patients about what they ate and where. The more time that passes between a patient consuming a contaminated meal and the epidemiological interview, the less they’re going to remember.

“While we’re probably going to have to go the route of reflex culture because we don’t have any alternative, it’s not optimal,” Besser says.

Many food safety experts are excited about whole-genome sequencing because of the increased level of detail it can provide. CDC and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are in the process of implementing the technology. The program began with Listeria and has so far sequenced hundreds of clinical and environmental isolates and begun real-time sequencing of every Listeria isolate across the country.

But, as it’s currently used, whole-genome sequencing also requires an isolate, so it’s also threatened by changing testing practices in clinical labs.

The long-range solution for testing is to develop culture-independent methods that function the same as PulseNet.

“Those new tests will almost certainly be DNA sequence-based,” Besser says.

By developing whole-genome sequencing, he adds, the agencies are putting together the infrastructure that will be needed for culture-independent tests, taking advantage of the current technology to get more accurate detection of illnesses and building a large library of bacterial genomes that can help in the development of these new CIDTs.

“Whole genome sequencing is the first phase of our long-term plan,” Besser says.

In September, CDC launched a “No-Petri-Dish” Diagnostic Test Challenge , which offered a $ 200,000 prize to encourage researchers to straintype and characterize Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) without using culture-based methods. The contest is open until Nov. 30 and the agency will notify the winner by mid-December.

Food Safety News