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Very important Investigation on the Hottest Look for Engines

secure essays

Introduction

A online search engine is software package application created to help web-based buyers to simply see detail on subject areas of desire on the World-wide-web. When utilising research engines, the person enters the look for phrase, subject or sentence while in the homepage which returns the search engine outcomes webpages as word wide web webpages, photos as well as other file variations. Lookup engines show results in real time with specifics on hand in databases and open directories that operate on an algorithm on an automated indexer. Mostly, search engines are important computer software methods that help net buyers to fast look for data and effective methods in the Internet.

Significant Assessment on the Most popular Search Engines

The most fashionable lookup engines over the Web comprise of Google, Yahoo, AltaVista, Excite, Easily and Info obtain. All lookup engines are discovered by their special Uniform Resource Locator (URL) which can be tell of the web address including Http://www.google.com. Every single in the previously mentioned listed favorite online search engine is characterised by incomparable capabilities that people find out exceptional and remarkable to. Usually there are nevertheless some unattractive features accessible on some of these engines.

Explore and net surveys indicate that Google stands out as the very best and renowned search engine in scope. Some of the most enjoyable qualities about Google consist of its speed and performance. Nearly all of the customers opt for Google due to the fact it is superfast and returns truly exact and competent search results in genuine time. Google delivers its buyers a variety of possible choices of search sources for instance images, newsgroups and a number of file varieties for that look for. Moreover, Google directories and databases are extremely massive and research webpages span to a lot of results. The problem involved with Google is the massive listing and database end results ensure it is conceivable with the person to decide on the best correct search final result.

Yahoo is another trendy internet search engine which also functions as an index. Yahoo’s homepage lets the people to select in the a great number of offered research keys though the index outlines the listing of out there subjects which is the most crucial limitation of Yahoo as a result of its customers are confined to certain issue indices and that they really are not likely to get intel about unavailable search topics.

AltaVista is yet another well known online search engine implemented in the World wide web that may be simplier and easier to implement and effectual. The usage of AltaVista for a internet search engine offers you its end users a possibility to find pictures of preference furthermore to newsgroups and information also. AltaVista is well organized with special sections for subject matter index lookups. The distinctiveness of AltaVista is the fact that its user interface is made to automatically translate international language web pages into English. The key challenge in using AltaVista tends to be that its directories usually aren’t as sizeable when compared to Google and returns fewer search results.

As for Excite, it really works in collaboration with other research companions for instance Google, Quickly, Inquire Jeeves and Inktomi. The search results obtained when using Excite connects the person to your lover look for engines. This is a crucial aspect for excite since it hyperlinks end users to a array of varied search engines and this gives the user a broad scope of search. The disadvantage of applying Excite for the internet search engine is always that it is always not self-dependent and it is not likely to present the user accurate search engine results.

Explore and online world survey shows the Very quickly capabilities much more like Google due to the fact its crawler primarily based equally as Google that gives its customers an extensive lookup coverage in real-time. Identical to the title suggests, Quickly internet search engine functions in realistic time with guidance accessible in databases and open up directories that run on an algorithm on an automated indexer. The search engine results received from employing very quickly are solid, related and precise. The only drawback of working with quick is the fact that its homepage offers constrained subject indices that should provide you with the end users a better alternative to getting certain subject matter are tips.

Last of all Information try to get is accustomed to seeking out precise and basic www.secureessays.com inquiries The leading obstacle connected with use Information search for as being a internet search engine is the consumer needs to progressively determine the look for topic creating it fewer user welcoming.

Conclusion

Irrespective of mentioning Google, Yahoo, AltaVista, Excite, Quick and Data request as the most popular research engines, modern-day technological developments have led to the event and emergence of additional sought after and enhanced research engines inside the social media marketing. New look for engines along the lines of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube channels, Instagram, Whatsup and Pinterest among the most people have improved social collaboration and interactions globally. The brand new research engines have inter related many people, communities, establishments and internet business companies through the world, improving the life of An incredible number of lives throughout the earth.

Very important Examination on the Most widely used Look for Engines

secure essays

Introduction

A search engine is software package scheme designed to support web-based users to simply look for details on subject areas of desire around the World-wide-web. When choosing look for engines, the user enters the lookup phrase, topic or sentence within the homepage which returns the internet search engine results pages as world-wide-web webpages, pictures and various file types. Look for engines deliver the results in genuine time with particulars on the market in databases and open directories that operate on an algorithm on an computerized indexer. Usually, look for engines are very important software programs techniques that let web consumers to instantly try to find tips and invaluable methods relating to the World wide web.

Significant Assessment of the Most favored Look for Engines

The foremost accepted lookup engines over the World wide web embrace Google, Yahoo, AltaVista, Excite, Easily and Details seek out. All search engines are discovered by their certain Uniform Resource Locator (URL) which happens to be tell of a website handle for example , Http://www.google.com. Every single for the above mentioned well-known internet search engine is characterized by one of a kind options that buyers identify remarkable and enjoyable to. You’ll find although some unattractive features offered on many of these engines.

Groundwork and world-wide-web surveys demonstrate that Google is the most useful and sought after search engine in scope. A number of the most exciting abilities about Google consist of its pace and usefulness. The majority of the customers favour Google seeing that it’s superfast and returns unbelievably accurate and efficient search results in real time. Google offers its customers quite a few solutions of research resources which include photographs, newsgroups and a variety of file varieties for that look for. In addition, Google directories and databases are certainly substantial and search pages span to an incredible number of success. The obstacle associated with Google is always that the huge listing and databases outcomes ensure it is practical with the person to choose probably the most exact lookup outcome.

Yahoo is another trendy online search engine which also functions as an index. Yahoo’s homepage enables the consumers to select in the a wide selection of for sale search keys although the index outlines the list of obtainable subjects that is certainly the primary limitation of Yahoo on the grounds that its consumers are minimal to special topic indices and that they may be not likely to search out material about unavailable look for topics.

AltaVista is an additional common search engine put into use within the Web that is definitely easier to employ and helpful. The use of AltaVista like a search engine promotions its customers a chance to find pictures of solution furthermore to newsgroups and information as well. AltaVista is very well structured with special sections for matter index queries. The uniqueness of AltaVista is that its user interface is made to instantly translate foreign language pages into English. The most crucial challenge in working with AltaVista is its directories usually aren’t as considerable when put next to Google and returns much less search results.

As for Excite, it works in collaboration with other look for partners for example , Google, Rapidly, You can ask Jeeves and Inktomi. The search results secureessays.com attained when working with Excite connects the user to your partner lookup engines. This is often an important feature for excite because it links people to the choice of numerous search engines which gives you the person a wide scope of research. The downside of making use of Excite for your internet search engine is the fact its not self-dependent and is also not likely to offer the person precise search results.

Examine and web study reveals the Fast capabilities even more like Google given that its crawler primarily based equally as Google that gives its people an extensive lookup protection in real-time. The same as the identify suggests, Speedily internet search engine functions in realistic time with critical information accessible in databases and open directories that run on an algorithm on an automated indexer. The search results received from by using swiftly are responsible, applicable and exact. The only real disadvantage of using extremely fast is its homepage deals minimal subject matter indices intended to provide you with the end users a better option to uncovering targeted matter are advice.

Last of all Data try to get is utilized to trying to find unique and common inquiries The principle challenge involved with use Data seek out like a search engine is that the person must progressively define the research matter making it significantly less user helpful.

Summary

In spite of mentioning Google, Yahoo, AltaVista, Excite, Speedy and Details search given that the hottest search engines, new technological breakthroughs have led to the development and emergence of increased common and highly developed look for engines with the social media. New lookup engines that include Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube channels, Instagram, Whatsup and Pinterest amongst some others have increased social collaboration and interactions globally. The brand new look for engines have inter related folk, communities, institutions and business enterprise companies over the planet, improving the life of Millions of life across the world.

Genomic atlas of gene switches in plants provides roadmap for crop research

June 30, 2013 — What allows certain plants to survive freezing and thrive in the Canadian climate, while others are sensitive to the slightest drop in temperature? Those that flourish activate specific genes at just the right time — but the way gene activation is controlled remains poorly understood.

A major step forward in understanding this process lies in a genomic map produced by an international consortium led by scientists from McGill University and the University of Toronto and published online today in the journal Nature Genetics.

The map, which is the first of its kind for plants, will help scientists to localize regulatory regions in the genomes of crop species such as canola, a major crop in Canada, according to researchers who worked on the project. The team has sequenced the genomes of several crucifers (a large plant family that includes a number of other food crops) and analyzed them along with previously published genomes to map more than 90,000 genomic regions that have been highly conserved but that do not appear to encode proteins.

“These regions are likely to play important roles in turning genes on or off, for example to regulate a plant’s development or its response to environmental conditions,” says McGill computer-science professor Mathieu Blanchette, one of the leaders of the study. Work is currently underway to identify which of those regions may be involved in controlling traits of particular importance to farmers.

The study also weighs in on a major debate among biologists, concerning how much of an organism’s genome has important functions in a cell, and how much is “junk DNA,” merely along for the ride. While stretches of the genome that code for proteins are relatively easy to identify, many other ‘noncoding’ regions may be important for regulating genes, activating them in the right tissue and under the right conditions.

While humans and plants have very similar numbers of protein-coding genes, the map published in Nature Genetics further suggests that the regulatory sequences controlling plant genes are far simpler, with a level of complexity between that of fungi and microscopic worms. “These findings suggest that the complexity of different organisms arises not so much from what genes they contain, but how they turn them on and off,” says McGill biology professor Thomas Bureau, a co-author of the paper.

ScienceDaily: Agriculture and Food News

‘Big data’ takes root in world of plant research

Botanists at Trinity College Dublin have launched a database with information that documents significant ‘life events’ for nearly 600 plant species across the globe. They clubbed together with like-minded individuals working across five different continents to compile the huge database of plant life histories, for which data have been gathered over a near 50-year span.

At a time in which climate change and increasing human populations are rapidly re-shaping plant distributions, the researchers hope their COMPADRE Plant Matrix database will foster collaborations between scientists and allow them to better answer questions such as how we can conserve the species that are critical for ecosystem services, and which may provide food for billions.

The researchers have just published an article in the international, peer-reviewed publication Journal of Ecology that describes the database. By making the precious data it contains free to download, they hope to inspire and accelerate important global research on plant biology.

“We hope that other scientists will use these data to answer questions such as why, unlike humans, some plants don’t deteriorate as they age, why some environments are better for agriculture than others, and how fast plant populations will move in response to climate change,” said Professor of Zoology in Trinity’s School of Natural Sciences, Yvonne Buckley.

She added: “Making the database freely available is our 21st Century revamp of the similarly inspired investments in living plant collections that were made to botanic gardens through the centuries; these were also set up to bring economic, medicinal and agricultural advantages of plants to people all over the world. Our database is moving this gift into the digital age of ‘Big Data’.”

We are used to shops, websites and companies keeping track of our purchases, what we eat, who we date, and even when and how we exercise. Keeping track of the most intimate details of life, death and reproduction should not be unique to human populations, though.

We rely on plants for some of our most basic needs like food, shelter and clothing. It is therefore vital that we know the ‘hows’, ‘whys’ and ‘wherefores’ governing the success of a diverse range of plant species so that we can protect them and put them to use for the good of the world.

The COMPADRE database contains far more information than one person could ever hope to pull together over a lifetime. The data have been collected over the past 48 years by many scientists on five continents, with sites ranging from the searing heat of deserts to the freezing cold of arctic and alpine plant communities. As a result, there are almost infinite questions for researchers to explore.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Trinity College Dublin. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Agriculture and Food News — ScienceDaily

Climate-smart agriculture requires three-pronged global research agenda

Faced with climate change and diminishing opportunities to expand productive agricultural acreage, the world needs to invest in a global research agenda addressing farm and food systems, landscape and regional issues and institutional and policy matters if it is to meet the growing worldwide demand for food, fiber and fuel, suggests an international team of researchers.

In a paper appearing online in the journal Agriculture and Food Security, the authors summarize the findings of the second international Climate Smart Agriculture conference held in March 2013 at UC Davis.

“Climate-smart agriculture has become a global policy initiative for economic development, poverty reduction and food security,” says lead author Kerri Steenwerth, a U.S. Department of Agriculture soil scientist and adjunct professor in the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology.

“It makes sense for farmers, consumers and food businesses because it is focused on the long-term sustainability of supply chains, and applies both to farmers’ fields and to the natural landscape,” she said.

The objectives recommended in the new paper set the stage for a stronger emphasis on moving knowledge into action and involving researchers in helping communities and societies to change and adapt.

Steenwerth has posted a blog entry about the paper on the Biomed Central blog. The blog and the paper were supported by the UC Davis College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.

A third global science conference on Climate-Smart Agriculture is scheduled to be held March 16-18, 2015 in Montpellier, France.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California – Davis. The original article was written by Andy Fell. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Agriculture and Food News — ScienceDaily

New research reveals how wild rabbits were genetically transformed into tame rabbits

The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. An international team of scientists has now made a breakthrough by showing that many genes controlling the development of the brain and the nervous system were particularly important for rabbit domestication. The study is published today in Science and gives answers to many genetic questions.

The domestication of animals and plants, a prerequisite for the development of agriculture, is one of the most important technological revolutions during human history. Domestication of animals started as early as 9,000 to 15,000 years ago and initially involved dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. The rabbit was domesticated much later, about 1,400 years ago, at monasteries in southern France. It has been claimed that rabbits were domesticated because the Catholic Church had declared that young rabbits were not considered meat, but fish, and could therefore be eaten during lent! When domestication occurred, the wild ancestor, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), was confined to the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

There are several reasons why the rabbit is an outstanding model for genetic studies of domestication: its domestication was relatively recent, we know where it happened, and this region is still densely populated with wild rabbits, explains Miguel Carneiro, from CIBIO/Inbio-University of Porto, one of the leading authors on the paper. Wild rabbits also serve as an excellent model for genetic studies of the early stages of species formation, as shown in an accompanying study we publish today in PLoS Genetics, adds Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists first sequenced the entire genome of one domestic rabbit to develop a reference genome assembly. Then they resequenced entire genomes of domestic rabbits representing six different breeds and wild rabbits sampled at 14 different places across the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

No previous study on animal domestication has involved such a careful examination of genetic variation in the wild ancestral species. This allowed us to pinpoint the genetic changes that have occurred during rabbit domestication, says Leif Andersson, Uppsala University, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Texas A&M University.

In contrast to domestic rabbits, wild rabbits have a very strong flight response because they are hunted by eagles, hawks, foxes and humans, and therefore must be very alert and reactive to survive in the wild. In fact, Charles Darwin wrote in On the Origin of Species that “…no animal is more difficult to tame than the young of the wild rabbit; scarcely any animal is tamer than the young of the tame rabbit.” Darwin used domestic animals as a proof-of-principle that it is possible to change phenotypes by selection. The scientists involved in the current study have now been able to reveal the genetic basis for this remarkable change in behaviour and the study has given important new insights about the domestication process.

Rabbit domestication has primarily occurred by altering the frequencies of gene variants that were already present in the wild ancestor. Our data shows that domestication primarily involved small changes in many genes and not drastic changes in a few genes, states Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, co-senior author, Director of Vertebrate Genome Biology at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, professor at Uppsala University and Co-Director of Science for Life Laboratory.

The team observed very few examples where a gene variant common in domestic rabbits had completely replaced the gene variant present in wild rabbits; it was rather shifts in frequencies of those variants that were favoured in domestic rabbits.

An interesting consequence of this is that if you release domestic rabbits into the wild, there is an opportunity for back selection at those genes that have been altered during domestication because the ‘wild-type’ variant has rarely been completely lost. In fact, this is what we plan to study next, comments Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists found no example where a gene has been inactivated during rabbit domestication and there were many more changes in the non-coding part of the genome than in the parts of the genome that codes for protein.

The results we have are very clear; the difference between a wild and a tame rabbit is not which genes they carry but how their genes are regulated i. e. when and how much of each gene is used in different cells, explains Miguel Carneiro.

The study also revealed which genes that have been altered during domestication. The researchers were amazed by the strong enrichment of genes involved in the development of the brain and the nervous system, among the genes particularly targeted during domestication.

But that of course makes perfect sense in relation to the drastic changes in behaviour between wild and domestic rabbits, concludes Kerstin Lindblad-Toh.

The study shows that the wild rabbit is a highly polymorphic species that carries gene variants that were favourable during domestication, and that the accumulation of many small changes led to the inhibition of the strong flight response — one of the most prominent phenotypic changes in the evolution of the domestic rabbit

We predict that a similar process has occurred in other domestic animals and that we will not find a few specific “domestication genes” that were critical for domestication. It is very likely that a similar diversity of gene variants affecting the brain and the nervous system occurs in the human population and that contributes to differences in personality and behaviour, says Leif Andersson.

Agriculture and Food News — ScienceDaily

New research reveals how wild rabbits were genetically transformed into tame rabbits

The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. An international team of scientists has now made a breakthrough by showing that many genes controlling the development of the brain and the nervous system were particularly important for rabbit domestication. The study is published today in Science and gives answers to many genetic questions.

The domestication of animals and plants, a prerequisite for the development of agriculture, is one of the most important technological revolutions during human history. Domestication of animals started as early as 9,000 to 15,000 years ago and initially involved dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. The rabbit was domesticated much later, about 1,400 years ago, at monasteries in southern France. It has been claimed that rabbits were domesticated because the Catholic Church had declared that young rabbits were not considered meat, but fish, and could therefore be eaten during lent! When domestication occurred, the wild ancestor, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), was confined to the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

There are several reasons why the rabbit is an outstanding model for genetic studies of domestication: its domestication was relatively recent, we know where it happened, and this region is still densely populated with wild rabbits, explains Miguel Carneiro, from CIBIO/Inbio-University of Porto, one of the leading authors on the paper. Wild rabbits also serve as an excellent model for genetic studies of the early stages of species formation, as shown in an accompanying study we publish today in PLoS Genetics, adds Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists first sequenced the entire genome of one domestic rabbit to develop a reference genome assembly. Then they resequenced entire genomes of domestic rabbits representing six different breeds and wild rabbits sampled at 14 different places across the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

No previous study on animal domestication has involved such a careful examination of genetic variation in the wild ancestral species. This allowed us to pinpoint the genetic changes that have occurred during rabbit domestication, says Leif Andersson, Uppsala University, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Texas A&M University.

In contrast to domestic rabbits, wild rabbits have a very strong flight response because they are hunted by eagles, hawks, foxes and humans, and therefore must be very alert and reactive to survive in the wild. In fact, Charles Darwin wrote in On the Origin of Species that “…no animal is more difficult to tame than the young of the wild rabbit; scarcely any animal is tamer than the young of the tame rabbit.” Darwin used domestic animals as a proof-of-principle that it is possible to change phenotypes by selection. The scientists involved in the current study have now been able to reveal the genetic basis for this remarkable change in behaviour and the study has given important new insights about the domestication process.

Rabbit domestication has primarily occurred by altering the frequencies of gene variants that were already present in the wild ancestor. Our data shows that domestication primarily involved small changes in many genes and not drastic changes in a few genes, states Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, co-senior author, Director of Vertebrate Genome Biology at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, professor at Uppsala University and Co-Director of Science for Life Laboratory.

The team observed very few examples where a gene variant common in domestic rabbits had completely replaced the gene variant present in wild rabbits; it was rather shifts in frequencies of those variants that were favoured in domestic rabbits.

An interesting consequence of this is that if you release domestic rabbits into the wild, there is an opportunity for back selection at those genes that have been altered during domestication because the ‘wild-type’ variant has rarely been completely lost. In fact, this is what we plan to study next, comments Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists found no example where a gene has been inactivated during rabbit domestication and there were many more changes in the non-coding part of the genome than in the parts of the genome that codes for protein.

The results we have are very clear; the difference between a wild and a tame rabbit is not which genes they carry but how their genes are regulated i. e. when and how much of each gene is used in different cells, explains Miguel Carneiro.

The study also revealed which genes that have been altered during domestication. The researchers were amazed by the strong enrichment of genes involved in the development of the brain and the nervous system, among the genes particularly targeted during domestication.

But that of course makes perfect sense in relation to the drastic changes in behaviour between wild and domestic rabbits, concludes Kerstin Lindblad-Toh.

The study shows that the wild rabbit is a highly polymorphic species that carries gene variants that were favourable during domestication, and that the accumulation of many small changes led to the inhibition of the strong flight response — one of the most prominent phenotypic changes in the evolution of the domestic rabbit

We predict that a similar process has occurred in other domestic animals and that we will not find a few specific “domestication genes” that were critical for domestication. It is very likely that a similar diversity of gene variants affecting the brain and the nervous system occurs in the human population and that contributes to differences in personality and behaviour, says Leif Andersson.

Agriculture and Food News — ScienceDaily

New research reveals how wild rabbits were genetically transformed into tame rabbits

The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. An international team of scientists has now made a breakthrough by showing that many genes controlling the development of the brain and the nervous system were particularly important for rabbit domestication. The study is published today in Science and gives answers to many genetic questions.

The domestication of animals and plants, a prerequisite for the development of agriculture, is one of the most important technological revolutions during human history. Domestication of animals started as early as 9,000 to 15,000 years ago and initially involved dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. The rabbit was domesticated much later, about 1,400 years ago, at monasteries in southern France. It has been claimed that rabbits were domesticated because the Catholic Church had declared that young rabbits were not considered meat, but fish, and could therefore be eaten during lent! When domestication occurred, the wild ancestor, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), was confined to the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

There are several reasons why the rabbit is an outstanding model for genetic studies of domestication: its domestication was relatively recent, we know where it happened, and this region is still densely populated with wild rabbits, explains Miguel Carneiro, from CIBIO/Inbio-University of Porto, one of the leading authors on the paper. Wild rabbits also serve as an excellent model for genetic studies of the early stages of species formation, as shown in an accompanying study we publish today in PLoS Genetics, adds Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists first sequenced the entire genome of one domestic rabbit to develop a reference genome assembly. Then they resequenced entire genomes of domestic rabbits representing six different breeds and wild rabbits sampled at 14 different places across the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

No previous study on animal domestication has involved such a careful examination of genetic variation in the wild ancestral species. This allowed us to pinpoint the genetic changes that have occurred during rabbit domestication, says Leif Andersson, Uppsala University, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Texas A&M University.

In contrast to domestic rabbits, wild rabbits have a very strong flight response because they are hunted by eagles, hawks, foxes and humans, and therefore must be very alert and reactive to survive in the wild. In fact, Charles Darwin wrote in On the Origin of Species that “…no animal is more difficult to tame than the young of the wild rabbit; scarcely any animal is tamer than the young of the tame rabbit.” Darwin used domestic animals as a proof-of-principle that it is possible to change phenotypes by selection. The scientists involved in the current study have now been able to reveal the genetic basis for this remarkable change in behaviour and the study has given important new insights about the domestication process.

Rabbit domestication has primarily occurred by altering the frequencies of gene variants that were already present in the wild ancestor. Our data shows that domestication primarily involved small changes in many genes and not drastic changes in a few genes, states Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, co-senior author, Director of Vertebrate Genome Biology at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, professor at Uppsala University and Co-Director of Science for Life Laboratory.

The team observed very few examples where a gene variant common in domestic rabbits had completely replaced the gene variant present in wild rabbits; it was rather shifts in frequencies of those variants that were favoured in domestic rabbits.

An interesting consequence of this is that if you release domestic rabbits into the wild, there is an opportunity for back selection at those genes that have been altered during domestication because the ‘wild-type’ variant has rarely been completely lost. In fact, this is what we plan to study next, comments Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists found no example where a gene has been inactivated during rabbit domestication and there were many more changes in the non-coding part of the genome than in the parts of the genome that codes for protein.

The results we have are very clear; the difference between a wild and a tame rabbit is not which genes they carry but how their genes are regulated i. e. when and how much of each gene is used in different cells, explains Miguel Carneiro.

The study also revealed which genes that have been altered during domestication. The researchers were amazed by the strong enrichment of genes involved in the development of the brain and the nervous system, among the genes particularly targeted during domestication.

But that of course makes perfect sense in relation to the drastic changes in behaviour between wild and domestic rabbits, concludes Kerstin Lindblad-Toh.

The study shows that the wild rabbit is a highly polymorphic species that carries gene variants that were favourable during domestication, and that the accumulation of many small changes led to the inhibition of the strong flight response — one of the most prominent phenotypic changes in the evolution of the domestic rabbit

We predict that a similar process has occurred in other domestic animals and that we will not find a few specific “domestication genes” that were critical for domestication. It is very likely that a similar diversity of gene variants affecting the brain and the nervous system occurs in the human population and that contributes to differences in personality and behaviour, says Leif Andersson.

Agriculture and Food News — ScienceDaily

New research reveals how wild rabbits were genetically transformed into tame rabbits

The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. An international team of scientists has now made a breakthrough by showing that many genes controlling the development of the brain and the nervous system were particularly important for rabbit domestication. The study is published today in Science and gives answers to many genetic questions.

The domestication of animals and plants, a prerequisite for the development of agriculture, is one of the most important technological revolutions during human history. Domestication of animals started as early as 9,000 to 15,000 years ago and initially involved dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. The rabbit was domesticated much later, about 1,400 years ago, at monasteries in southern France. It has been claimed that rabbits were domesticated because the Catholic Church had declared that young rabbits were not considered meat, but fish, and could therefore be eaten during lent! When domestication occurred, the wild ancestor, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), was confined to the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

There are several reasons why the rabbit is an outstanding model for genetic studies of domestication: its domestication was relatively recent, we know where it happened, and this region is still densely populated with wild rabbits, explains Miguel Carneiro, from CIBIO/Inbio-University of Porto, one of the leading authors on the paper. Wild rabbits also serve as an excellent model for genetic studies of the early stages of species formation, as shown in an accompanying study we publish today in PLoS Genetics, adds Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists first sequenced the entire genome of one domestic rabbit to develop a reference genome assembly. Then they resequenced entire genomes of domestic rabbits representing six different breeds and wild rabbits sampled at 14 different places across the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

No previous study on animal domestication has involved such a careful examination of genetic variation in the wild ancestral species. This allowed us to pinpoint the genetic changes that have occurred during rabbit domestication, says Leif Andersson, Uppsala University, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Texas A&M University.

In contrast to domestic rabbits, wild rabbits have a very strong flight response because they are hunted by eagles, hawks, foxes and humans, and therefore must be very alert and reactive to survive in the wild. In fact, Charles Darwin wrote in On the Origin of Species that “…no animal is more difficult to tame than the young of the wild rabbit; scarcely any animal is tamer than the young of the tame rabbit.” Darwin used domestic animals as a proof-of-principle that it is possible to change phenotypes by selection. The scientists involved in the current study have now been able to reveal the genetic basis for this remarkable change in behaviour and the study has given important new insights about the domestication process.

Rabbit domestication has primarily occurred by altering the frequencies of gene variants that were already present in the wild ancestor. Our data shows that domestication primarily involved small changes in many genes and not drastic changes in a few genes, states Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, co-senior author, Director of Vertebrate Genome Biology at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, professor at Uppsala University and Co-Director of Science for Life Laboratory.

The team observed very few examples where a gene variant common in domestic rabbits had completely replaced the gene variant present in wild rabbits; it was rather shifts in frequencies of those variants that were favoured in domestic rabbits.

An interesting consequence of this is that if you release domestic rabbits into the wild, there is an opportunity for back selection at those genes that have been altered during domestication because the ‘wild-type’ variant has rarely been completely lost. In fact, this is what we plan to study next, comments Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists found no example where a gene has been inactivated during rabbit domestication and there were many more changes in the non-coding part of the genome than in the parts of the genome that codes for protein.

The results we have are very clear; the difference between a wild and a tame rabbit is not which genes they carry but how their genes are regulated i. e. when and how much of each gene is used in different cells, explains Miguel Carneiro.

The study also revealed which genes that have been altered during domestication. The researchers were amazed by the strong enrichment of genes involved in the development of the brain and the nervous system, among the genes particularly targeted during domestication.

But that of course makes perfect sense in relation to the drastic changes in behaviour between wild and domestic rabbits, concludes Kerstin Lindblad-Toh.

The study shows that the wild rabbit is a highly polymorphic species that carries gene variants that were favourable during domestication, and that the accumulation of many small changes led to the inhibition of the strong flight response — one of the most prominent phenotypic changes in the evolution of the domestic rabbit

We predict that a similar process has occurred in other domestic animals and that we will not find a few specific “domestication genes” that were critical for domestication. It is very likely that a similar diversity of gene variants affecting the brain and the nervous system occurs in the human population and that contributes to differences in personality and behaviour, says Leif Andersson.

Agriculture and Food News — ScienceDaily

New research reveals how wild rabbits were genetically transformed into tame rabbits

The genetic changes that transformed wild animals into domesticated forms have long been a mystery. An international team of scientists has now made a breakthrough by showing that many genes controlling the development of the brain and the nervous system were particularly important for rabbit domestication. The study is published today in Science and gives answers to many genetic questions.

The domestication of animals and plants, a prerequisite for the development of agriculture, is one of the most important technological revolutions during human history. Domestication of animals started as early as 9,000 to 15,000 years ago and initially involved dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. The rabbit was domesticated much later, about 1,400 years ago, at monasteries in southern France. It has been claimed that rabbits were domesticated because the Catholic Church had declared that young rabbits were not considered meat, but fish, and could therefore be eaten during lent! When domestication occurred, the wild ancestor, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), was confined to the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

There are several reasons why the rabbit is an outstanding model for genetic studies of domestication: its domestication was relatively recent, we know where it happened, and this region is still densely populated with wild rabbits, explains Miguel Carneiro, from CIBIO/Inbio-University of Porto, one of the leading authors on the paper. Wild rabbits also serve as an excellent model for genetic studies of the early stages of species formation, as shown in an accompanying study we publish today in PLoS Genetics, adds Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists first sequenced the entire genome of one domestic rabbit to develop a reference genome assembly. Then they resequenced entire genomes of domestic rabbits representing six different breeds and wild rabbits sampled at 14 different places across the Iberian Peninsula and southern France.

No previous study on animal domestication has involved such a careful examination of genetic variation in the wild ancestral species. This allowed us to pinpoint the genetic changes that have occurred during rabbit domestication, says Leif Andersson, Uppsala University, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Texas A&M University.

In contrast to domestic rabbits, wild rabbits have a very strong flight response because they are hunted by eagles, hawks, foxes and humans, and therefore must be very alert and reactive to survive in the wild. In fact, Charles Darwin wrote in On the Origin of Species that “…no animal is more difficult to tame than the young of the wild rabbit; scarcely any animal is tamer than the young of the tame rabbit.” Darwin used domestic animals as a proof-of-principle that it is possible to change phenotypes by selection. The scientists involved in the current study have now been able to reveal the genetic basis for this remarkable change in behaviour and the study has given important new insights about the domestication process.

Rabbit domestication has primarily occurred by altering the frequencies of gene variants that were already present in the wild ancestor. Our data shows that domestication primarily involved small changes in many genes and not drastic changes in a few genes, states Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, co-senior author, Director of Vertebrate Genome Biology at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, professor at Uppsala University and Co-Director of Science for Life Laboratory.

The team observed very few examples where a gene variant common in domestic rabbits had completely replaced the gene variant present in wild rabbits; it was rather shifts in frequencies of those variants that were favoured in domestic rabbits.

An interesting consequence of this is that if you release domestic rabbits into the wild, there is an opportunity for back selection at those genes that have been altered during domestication because the ‘wild-type’ variant has rarely been completely lost. In fact, this is what we plan to study next, comments Miguel Carneiro.

The scientists found no example where a gene has been inactivated during rabbit domestication and there were many more changes in the non-coding part of the genome than in the parts of the genome that codes for protein.

The results we have are very clear; the difference between a wild and a tame rabbit is not which genes they carry but how their genes are regulated i. e. when and how much of each gene is used in different cells, explains Miguel Carneiro.

The study also revealed which genes that have been altered during domestication. The researchers were amazed by the strong enrichment of genes involved in the development of the brain and the nervous system, among the genes particularly targeted during domestication.

But that of course makes perfect sense in relation to the drastic changes in behaviour between wild and domestic rabbits, concludes Kerstin Lindblad-Toh.

The study shows that the wild rabbit is a highly polymorphic species that carries gene variants that were favourable during domestication, and that the accumulation of many small changes led to the inhibition of the strong flight response — one of the most prominent phenotypic changes in the evolution of the domestic rabbit

We predict that a similar process has occurred in other domestic animals and that we will not find a few specific “domestication genes” that were critical for domestication. It is very likely that a similar diversity of gene variants affecting the brain and the nervous system occurs in the human population and that contributes to differences in personality and behaviour, says Leif Andersson.

Agriculture and Food News — ScienceDaily

Social media, grassroots, research propelled Atlanta openings: Sprouts

Connecting with consumers through social media, grassroots efforts and extensive research helped propel the entry of Sprouts Farmers Market into Atlanta, company officials told investors.

“What you saw in Atlanta was just a really hard push upfront through social media and grassroots to get our brand in there,” Doug Sanders, president and CEO, said.

“The level of consumer anticipation around these openings was far more than we had ever experienced in a new market, as evidenced by the 40,000 Facebook fans we amassed before opening our first store and the more than 1,000 customers that signed up for our pre-opening event in less than one hour.

“Obviously, being able to connect with that consumer via social media and then having our on-the-ground grassroots marketing team out there several months before a store opens has been very, very beneficial.”

Sanders said the company also benefitted from extensive research designed to understand the customer in the Southeast. “The local products we brought in really gained us a lot of credibility with that Atlanta customer,” he pointed out, “and we’re seeing the benefit of that within the initial numbers.”

Sales at the first two stores in Atlanta “have started off well above our expectations, with continued momentum past the opening week,” Sanders noted.

The Phoenix-based chain opened its first Atlanta-area store in the suburb of Snellville, Ga., in mid-June and opened a second store in Dunwoody a month later. It has scheduled openings in Peachtree Corners in mid-August and John’s Creek in mid-September, with up to 11 more Georgia stores planned.

Sanders said Sprouts plans to maintain a new-store growth rate of 14% a year, “but given the opportunity, we’d flex up to take advantage of an opportunity that came our way.”

Amin Maredia, the chain’s CFO and treasurer, said the company is exploring the possibility of taking over leases of other businesses that could be converted to supermarkets, “but we’re seeing very aggressive rates in certain parts of the country, so we just have to be patient and not get too aggressive because there are plenty of opportunities in the 10 states we’re currently in.”

Asked about the chain’s capital priorities, Maredia said investment priorities include new stores first, followed by sales initiatives and disciplined remodeling activity.

In response to a question, Maredia said Sprouts is looking at online models “because we do have some urban stores, but most of our stores are in suburbs and customer preferences there haven’t shifted as much as if you were in the middle of San Francisco or New York City.

“What our customer base is telling us today is online is not an investment priority. That doesn’t mean we won’t do tests to see how these models work, and if they add significant benefit to the business, we would expand on that.”

Although produce sales account for about 25% of total volume, James L. Nielsen, the chain’s COO, said consumers “are giving us more credit than just being a produce store. They are giving us credit for being a value-oriented grocery store.”

Nielsen also said Sprouts is focusing on “being really disciplined around the customer,” determining what they want from the standpoint of products, services and education. “We think we are good today but we continue to get better by listening to our customers, and we are spending a lot of time [figuring out] what is the next thing we want to achieve over the next several years to be even better.”

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