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Main Type of Table Saws That Can Simplify Your Job

A table saw is the most typical piece of huge woodworking equipment located in shops around the globe. Table saw are really functional, and if you can only have one piece of woodworking devices, a rigid table saw is most likely the most effective one to select. These more portable sorts of table saws use convenience and also convenience of usage with the benefit of transportability.

The 4 Main Sort Of Table Saws

There are four major classes of table saws: professional saws, benchtop table saws, cupboard saws as well as crossbreed saws. When choosing between mobile and flooring standing table saws, the important point you’re aiming to do is balance sturdiness with portability. Since the majority of portable kinds of devices do not have the same resilience features, they generally do not last as long as their less portable counterparts.

In the contemporary table saw, regardless of type, the deepness of a cut is transformed by readjusting the distance that the blade protrudes above the table surface area. The more the blade protrudes from the table, the much deeper the cut that is made in the product will certainly be. Alternatively, the much less a blade sticks out from the table, the extra superficial the cut that is made in the product being reduced, will be.

In older table saw, modifying the angle of the blade was utilized to enhance or lower the deepness of the cut. Nowadays, there is still an adjustable angle control, however this is utilized simply to change the angle at which the product is cut, and is not made use of to decrease or increase the depth of cut being made.

Contractor Table Saws

They are hefty, big and featured a base or stand that commonly additionally has actually wheels for enhanced movement. The electric motor pivots off the back of a specialist table saw and also drives the saw blade back and forth by a solitary belt that utilizes a 1 to 2 horsepower induction kind of motor.

This sort of table saw is commonly made use of by homeowners as well as hobbyists for the standard electric needs and also the affordable of procedure. Because the professional table saw electric motor hangs off the back of the saw on a pivot, dirt accumulated can be a trouble when compared with a cabinet saw.

Benchtop Table Saws

They are extremely light-weight as well as are developed to be operated while they sit atop a table or various other degree helpful surface area. These sorts of table saws typically have a straight drive that does not include pulley-blocks or a v-belt to drive the saw.

One of the benefits of making use of a benchtop table saw are that they are extremely lightweight and also can be moved by a single person. This makes them wonderful saws for taking from location to area. The downside, however, is that these compact table saws are made from somewhat much less sturdy product. These are the least capable as well as the least pricey versions of table saws offered today.

Benchtop table saws are completely with the ability of managing most cutting jobs, it’s just that they will certainly not have the ability to perform as well over time, or for details kinds of reducing jobs. For example, when cutting making use of a miter edge, a benchtop table saw may have issues keeping the miter edge directly.

Cupboard Table Saws

They are heavy and incorporate a large amount of steel and cast iron in order to enhance precision and also decrease vibration. A closet table saw is identified by having a shut closet situation and typically have induction motors in the 3 to 5 horse power variety.

Cupboard table saws commonly require higher electrical energy usage, and also probably a 220V outlet have to be set up if there is not one already. Cabinet table saws tend to have numerous advantages over service provider table saws. For one, there is enhanced dirt collection on many cupboard table saws. Additionally, closet saws have the tendency to be simpler to change in general.

European cabinet saws tend to be a lot more complex in layout whereas the cupboard saws used in the United States, Canada and also China are quite the exact same layout that they’ve been made after given that 1937. The Delta Unisaw has actually developed some because 1937, yet the exact same fundamental framework style is still made use of today.

Hybrid Table Saws & Add-on

Along with the four main kinds of table saws, there are also hybrid table saws that are designed to contend out there with the much more costly contractor table saws while providing a few of the benefits of cupboard table saws at a much reduced rate.

Many crossbreed table saws supply a confined closet location. Some hybrid saws have cabinet-mounted trunnions and also some have table-mounted trunnions. Essentially, hybrid table saws are lighter compared to cupboard saws as well as larger than specialist saws.

There are many table saw accessories that could broaden the use of any type of kind of table saw. There are slit fences. These may should be changed kind time to time, yet most table saws do have a split fencing. A split fence is the guide that reducing products are slid along.

One more valuable thing to have is a miter scale. Miter evaluates match miter grooves that run parallel to the strategy of the blade. These miter assesses can be adjusted to different angles in order to reduce mitered sides on different materials.

Canadian market to reopen for Italian table grapes

Italy’s Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policy (Mipaaf) has announced a deal has successfully been completed to regain access to the Canadian table grape market, which was blocked in 2010.

In a release, Mipaaf said the agreement follows the successful outcome of evaluations from Canadian phytosanitary experts who visited the country in October last year.

The inspectors visited fields in the southern Italian regions of Basilicata, Puglia and Sicily.

In summary, the ministry said producers and exporters interested in shipping to Canada would undertake the necessary steps.

“This is a major achievement for the whole Italian table grape sector, and is the fruit of the work of the Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policy in close cooperation with producer associations and regional institutions,” Mipaaf said.


Europe: Drop in table grape production 2014/15

Europe: Drop in table grape production 2014/15

The EU is still one of the leading producers of fresh fruit. Together with China and Iran, it is one of the main produces of table grapes in particular – Italy, Spain and Greece grow in fact 93% of the total European yield.

After a significant drop in the last decade, the area dedicated to table grape cultivation in Europe keeps dropping. This is due to the fact that growing is less profitable, production costs are increasing and there is a lot of competition. After a record 2013/14 campaign, a 16% drop is expected for 2014/15, for a total of 1.6 million tons.

In particular, considerable drops are expected in Italy (-20%), Greece (-8.6%), Spain (-8%), Bulgaria (-40.8%), France (-16%), Portugal (-8.6%) and Romania (-5.3%).

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Italy is the sixth table grape producer worldwide and the third exporter behind Chile and the US. This fruit is cultivated mainly in the South and, thanks to the great intra and extra-European demand, production is shifting towards the seedless varieties (Sugraone, Crimson, Thompson, Centennial and Sublime).

This year, quantities should drop considerably because of bad weather during blossoming and setting. 

Lower production, slow consumption and the Russian ban meant prices dropped by 25-30% with respect to the previous season – from €1.30-1.50/kg to €0.70-1.20/kg.

Early varieties (Black Magic and Victoria) were available between May and late July. Medium and late varieties (Italia, Palieri, Pizzutello Biance and Red Globe) – which originate from Sicily, Abruzzo, Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia - are harvested from August to December.

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According to the latest data supplied by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, production should drop by 8% because of bad weather.

Currently there are 13,500 hectares of table grapes and the most productive areas are Murcia, Valencia and Andalusia. 70% of the total cultivated areas are in Murcia and Alicante. There are 50 varieties of table grapes in Spain, but the main ones are Aledo, Ideal, Muscatel, Dominga and Napoleon. Seedless grapes represent 30% of the total production and are mostly grown in Murcia.

Greece is the third main table grape producer in the EU after Italy and Spain. This year, the country should produce around 298,000 tons. The season started on the second week of August and should end early.

Currently, 17,000 hectares of table grapes are cultivated and the main producers are Corinth in the Peloponnese, Kavala in Macedonia and Candia in Crete. The most popular varieties are Sultana (Thompson seedless) and Victoria.

Despite the economic crisis, consumption of table grapes in the EU has been rather stable in the past few years at 2 million tons. From June and until the end of the commercial year, the produce is supplied internally – imports from third countries only represent 22.5%.

Italy consumes the most, followed by Germany, UK, Greece, Spain, France, Romania, Portugal, Czech Republic, Austria, Bulgaria and Slovakia. Despite the fact that Italian grapes with seeds are still widely appreciated, consumers are increasingly asking for seedless varieties. 

Many European producers are therefore replacing traditional varieties with Sugraone, Crimson, Thompson, Regal, Summer Royal, Centennial, Sublime, etc. In addition, more attention has been paid to the late varieties, so the season can be extended for longer after the summer fruit campaign.

Source: data

Publication date: 11/12/2014

Processing Aids for Fresh Produce: Safety Buffers Between Farm and Table

Nutrition labels on items in the produce section tend to be short, if not absent altogether. While cereals, soups and sauces come with long lists of ingredients on their packaging, an apple doesn’t need an ingredient list for consumers to know what they’re buying (although it arrived at the grocery store in a labeled package), and the ingredients for bagged salad are only as varied as the different lettuces in the bag.

However, more often than not, other substances are at some point applied to the fruits and vegetables available on store shelves in order to kill pathogens or preserve freshness. But unless these substances change the character of the food or are still present in significant amounts by the time they reach the consumer, they are considered a “processing aid,” and do not have to be listed as an ingredient by law.

According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, processing aids are substances that are added to a food during processing but are either “removed in some manner from the food before it is packaged in its finished form” or “converted into constituents normally present in the food,” or are “present in the finished food at insignificant levels and do not have any technical or functional effect in that food.”

For more information about how processing aids are classified, see Food Safety News’ article Processing Aids: What’s Not on the Label, and Why? 

What processing aids were used on the produce I’m buying? 

Processing aids used on produce are wide-ranging, from chlorine washes to ozone to organic acids to oils derived from plants such as cinnamon or pine trees.

“It’s not always across the board for all commodities and they don’t always use [one processing aid] consistently even throughout the season,” says Trevor Suslow, extension research specialist at the University of California Davis.

The challenge for a processor is to find the substance that safely delivers the desired effect (pathogen reduction or freshness preservation) without changing the quality or taste of the food.

Items marketed as ready-to-eat, such as bagged lettuce or sliced apples, have almost certainly been treated with at least one processing aid, says Suslow.

Indeed FDA recommends the use of antimicrobial agents in its guidance for industry on minimizing microbial hazards for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

“An initial wash treatment may be used to remove the bulk of field soil from produce followed by an additional wash or washes containing an antimicrobial chemical,” writes the agency.

One such ready-to-eat product, bagged lettuce, usually goes through two and often three washing phases, says Suslow. The first wash water commonly contains chlorine or chlorine dioxide, while the second might include an antimicrobial agent such as peracetic acid or acidified sodium chlorite – a combination of sodium chlorite and citric acid.

Finding the right balance has been a process for the leafy greens industry, says Suslow, as too much chlorine can leave a lingering odor or flavor on greens, and too little won’t be effective at killing pathogens.

“As that industry has grown and matured and gotten some strong negative feedback earlier on about chlorine residual taste or smell, which some of the product certainly had, they’ve really worked at minimizing any carry over,” Suslow explains.

Peracetic acid is also applied by apple processors, who may use it on apples in a dunk tank or as a spray.

A 2007 study from Washington State University found that peracetic acid could also be used on cherries without changing the quality of the fruit when used at low and medium concentrations. The leading method of cherry sanitization is also a chlorine wash, according to the study.

Chlorine washes are common across the produce industry, says Suslow. Table grapes are another example of a type of produce often treated with chlorine.

“It can vary, but at least the operations that I’ve had the opportunity to visit, it’s pretty much the same,” he says. “They tend to be rinsed in chlorinated water or ozone and then they take the individual grapes off the stem after that.”

Stone fruits, such as peaches and nectarines, which are in season right now, often benefit from a chlorine wash as well, says Suslow.

FDA has set specified concentrations for processing aids used in washes so that they are present at safe levels. For example, the concentration of sodium chlorite in acid solutions used on raw agricultural commodities and processed fruits and vegetables must remain between 500 and 1,200 parts per million.

Other processing aids may be used to keep produce from spoiling. For example, grapes are often packed with pads containing sulfur dioxide to prevent decaying and the growth of mold.

On the flip side, processing aids can also be applied to induce ripening. Ethylene gas, for example, is often applied to bananas to speed up the ripening process before they are distributed to retailers, since bananas are commonly harvested in an unripened state.

Processing aids for produce: looking forward

One sector that’s recently been looking at different processing aid options is the cantaloupe industry. After two deadly foodborne illness outbreaks linked to these melons – a Listeria outbreak that killed 33 people in 2011 and a Salmonella outbreak that sickened 261 people and killed 3 in 2012 – shook consumer confidence and hurt the industry, processors have been looking for a way to ensure consumers of the safety of their product.

Processing aids are among the solutions that are being closely examined by the cantaloupe industry, along with brushing, pasteurization and other sanitizing techniques, according to Suslow.

An ongoing research project at the Center for Produce Safety is looking at the effectiveness of essential oils — such as those derived from cinnamon bark and pine needles — as antimicrobial agents.

“We’re getting promising results,” says Suslow of this research, “and we still have a ways to go.”

The trick with these oils, he notes, is to make sure they don’t affect the flavor of the produce to which they’re applied.

Another benefit of using essential oils is that they are also organic, a feature that appeals to a growing number of consumers.

Will such oils become common as processing aids in the produce industry?

That remains to be seen. Suslow says cost is a primary concern, and right now chlorine remains one of the cheapest sanitizing options for produce.

Other organic processing aids include lactic acid as an antimicrobial or ascorbic acid (derived from vitamin C) as an anti-browning agent.

For an in-depth explanation of organic versus non-organic processing aids, see Food Safety News’ article How Does the Organic Industry Regulate Processing Aids?

Another processing aid gaining popularity in the produce industry is electrolyzed oxidized water, which can be generated on-site and is sodium-free.

Fresh berries: another approach 

Of course not all produce items have been treated with processing aids. Such items may be fragile or susceptible to taste alteration, or companies might have found that other food safety precautions adequately minimize pathogens on their products. Kyle Register, a representative for Driscoll’s, which sells fresh berries, says each berry is handled only once, and goes straight from the farm where it’s picked into a clamshell and then to the grocery store. No processing aids are used on these items. Instead, the safety of the berries is controlled through stringent adherence to the company’s Global Food Safety Program, which is modeled on FDA’s good agricultural practices (GAPs) standards and verified by independent audits.

This fruit packaged without a processing aid illustrates what Suslow says is the main take-home point when it comes to processing aids for fruits and vegetables: one size does not fit all. In fact, there’s a different size for pretty much every processor, and even the same processor is likely to be exploring new methods.

“There are a variety of different processes and it’s hard to track because they often change from visit to visit,” says Suslow.

Food Safety News